Facts about Fluoridation


Fluoride Action Network
March 2002


Fluoride's Benefits are Primarily TOPICAL not SYSTEMIC


Pit & Fissure Decay - Prevented by Sealants, not Fluoride



1 | Fluoride Never Approved as Safe & Effective by FDA:

  1. Food & Drug Administration. (2000). Letter from Melinda K. Plaisier, Associate Commissioner for Legislation, FDA, to Congressman Ken Calvert. Dec 21, 2000. (See pdf file of letter at http://www.citizens.org/Food_Water_Safety/Fluoridation/Materials/fda_response.pdf
  2. Kelly, J.V. (2000). Letter to Senator Robert Smith, Chairman of Environment and Public Works Committee, U.S. Senate, August 14, 2000. (for text see http://www.fluoridealert.org/fda.htm)

2 | Fluoride's Topical Vs. Systemic Effects:

  1. Burt, B.A. (1994). Letter. Fluoride, 27, 180-181.
  2. Carlos, J.P. (1983). Comments on Fluoride. J. Pedodontics. Winter, 135-136.
  3. CDC. (2001). Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review. August 17, 50(RR14):1-42.
  4. CDC (1999). Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review (MMWR), 48(41);933-940 October 22, 1999. http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm
  5. Featherstone, J.D.B. (1987) The Mechanism of dental decay. Nutrition Today, May/June, 10.
  6. Featherstone J.D.B. (1999) Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 27:31-40.
  7. Featherstone, J.D.B. (2000). The Science and Practice of Caries Prevention. Journal of the American Dental Association. 131, 887-899.
  8. Fejerskov, O. et al (1981) Rational use of fluorides in caries prevention. Acta. Odontol. Scand., 241-249.
  9. Levine, R.S., (1976). The action of fluoride in caries prevention: a review of current concepts. Brit. Dent. J. 140, 9-14.
  10. Locker, D. (1999). Benefits and Risks of Water Fluoridation. An Update of the 1996 Federal-Provincial Sub-committee Report. Prepared for Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.
  11. Limeback, H. (1999). A re-examination of the pre-eruptive and post-eruptive mechanism of the anti-caries effects of fluoride: is there any caries benefit from swallowing fluoride? Community. Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 27, 62-71.

3 | Arsenic Levels in Fluoridation Chemicals:

Hazan, Stan (2000). Letter to Florida Department of Health from Stan Hazan, General Manager, Drinking Water Additives Certification Program, National Sanitation Foundation International. 24 April 2000. http://www.fluoridealert.org/NSF-Letter.pdf

4 | Cavities Declining throughout Western Industrialized World, Irrespective of Fluoridation:

  1. Diesendorf, M.(1986). The Mystery of Declining Tooth Decay. Nature, 322, 125-129.
  2. WHO (Online). WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme. Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Surveillance/Oral Health. WHO Collaborating Centre, Malmö University, Sweden. http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html
  3. Haugejorden O. (1996). Using the DMF gender difference to assess the "major" role of fluoride toothpastes in the caries decline in industrialized countries: a meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 24(6):369-75.
  4. Petersson GH, Bratthall D. (1996). The caries decline: a review of reviews. Eur J Oral Sci 104(4(Pt 2)):436-43.
  5. Reich E. (2001). Trends in caries and periodontal health epidemiology in Europe. Int Dent J. 51(6 Suppl 1):392-8.

DMFT (Decayed, Missing & Filled teeth) Status for 12 year olds by Country - WHO Data -
World Health Organization Data

  DMFTs Year Status
Australia 0.8 1998 fluoridated
Zurich, Switzerland 0.84 1998 unfluoridated
Netherlands 0.9 1992-93 unfluoridated
Sweden 0.9 1999 unfluoridated
Denmark 0.9 2001 unfluoridated
UK (England, Scotland, N. Ire) 1.1 1996-97 10% fluoridated
Ireland 1.1 1997 fluoridated
Finland 1.1 1997 unfluoridated
US 1.4 1988-91 fluoridated
Norway 1.5 1998 unfluoridated
Iceland 1.5 1996 unfluoridated
New Zealand 1.5 1993 fluoridated
Belgium 1.6 1998 unfluoridated
Germany 1.7 1997 unfluoridated
Austria 1.7 1997 unfluoridated
France 1.9 1998 unfluoridated

Data from: WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Surveillance/Oral Health WHO Collaborating Centre, Malmö University, Sweden http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html

5 | NIDR's National Survey on Dental Health (Largest Dental Survey Ever Conducted in US):

  1. Brunelle, J.A. and Carlos, J.P. (1990). Recent trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation. J. Dent. Res 69, (Special edition), 723-727. (Read correspondence on this study).
  2. Hileman, B. (1989). New Studies Cast Doubt on Fluoridation Benefits. Chemical and Engineering News, 67 (19) May 8. http://www.fluoridealert.org/NIDR.htm
  3. Yiamouyiannis, J.A. (1990). Water Fluoridation and Tooth decay: Results from the 1986-87 National Survey of U.S. Schoolchildren. Fluoride, 23, 55-67. http://www.fluoridealert.org/DMFTs.htm

6 | Fluoridation Cessation Studies:

  1. Burt BA, Keels MA, Heller KE. (2000). The effects of a break in water fluoridation on the development of dental caries and fluorosis.J Dent Res Feb;79(2):761-9.
  2. Kunzel, W., Fischer, T., Lorenz R., Bruhmann, S. (2000). Decline in caries prevalence after the cessation of water fluoridation in former East Germany. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 28(5): 382-389.
  3. Kunzel, W. and T. Fischer (2000). Caries prevalence after cessation of water fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba. Caries Res 34(1): 20-5.
  4. Maupome, G. et al. (2001). Patterns of dental caries following the cessation of water fluoridation. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 29(1): 37-47.
  5. Seppa, L., Karkkaimen, S. and Hausen, H. (2000) Caries trends 1992-98 in two low-fluoride Finnish towns formerly with and without fluoride. Caries Res 34(6): 462-8.

7 | Fluoride Ineffective at Preventing Pit & Fissure Decay:

  1. Loe, H. (1984). Hearings: Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Dr. Harald Loe, Director of the National Institute of Dental Research.
  2. "Let me begin by saying that fluorides are most effective in preventing decay on the smooth surfaces of teeth. However, the chewing surfaces of posterior are not smooth. They have crevices and pits and it is our experience that fluorides don't really get access to these pitted areas."

  3. The Oral Health of California's Children: A Neglected Epidemic. Selected Findings and Recommendations from the California Oral Health Needs Assessment of Children, 1993-1994.
  4. "Fluoride primarily protects the smooth surfaces of teeth, and sealants protect the pits and fissures (grooves), primarily on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth. Although pit and fissure tooth surfaces only comprise about 15% of all permanent tooth surfaces, they were the site of 83% of tooth decay in U.S. children in 1986-87."

  5. Gray, AS. (1987). Fluoridation: Time For A New Base Line? Journal of the Canadian Dental Association. No. 10.
  6. "The type of caries now seen in British Columbia's children of 13 years of age, is mostly the pit and fissure type. Knudsen in 1940, suggested that 70 percent of the caries in children was in pits and fissures. Recent reports indicate that today, 83 percent of all caries in North American children is of this type. Pit and fissure cavities aren't considered to be preventable by fluorides, they are prevented by sealants."

  7. Journal of the American Dental Association. (1984). Preserving the perfect tooth. Editorial. Vol. 108.
  8. "It is estimated that 84% of the caries experience in the 5 to 17 year-old population involves tooth surfaces with pits and fissures. Although fluorides cannot be expected appreciably to reduce our incidence of caries on these surfaces, sealants can."

  9. Pinkham, JR, ed. (1999). Pediatric Dentistry Infancy Through Adolescence. 3rd Edition. WB Saunders Co.
  10. "[E]namel surfaces with pits and fissures receive minimal caries protection from either systemic or topical fluoride agents."

  11. Public Health Reports. (1993). Toward Improving the Oral Health of Americans. Vol. 108, No. 6. Nov. - Dec.
  12. "Fluoridation and the use of other fluorides have been successful in decreasing the prevalence of dental caries on the smooth surfaces of teeth. Unfortunately, these efforts have much less effect on dental caries that occur in the pits and fissures of teeth (particularly on the biting surfaces of teeth) where more than 85 percent of dental caries now occur."

8 | Fluoridation doesn't Prevent Baby Bottle Tooth Decay:

  1. Barnes GP et al. Ethnicity, Location, Age, and Fluoridation Factors in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and Caries Prevalence of Head Start Children. Public Health Reports; 107: 167-73, 1992.
  2. Von Burg MM et al. Baby Bottle Tooth Decay: A Concern for All Mothers. Pediatric Nursing; 21:515-519, 1995.

9 | Lack of Dentists Accepting Medicaid Patients:

Guiden, M. (1990). Dental Health for kids moves to the forefront. State Health Notes 19(280). Forum for State Health Policy Leadership, National Conference of State Legislatures. July 6. (Cited in: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (U.S. DHHS) (2000). Oral health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/sgr/execsumm.htm)

10 | Fluoride Acute Toxicity Data:

  1. University of Pennsylvannia School of Dental Medicine. (2001). Can Fluoride Cause Harm? InteliHealth Dental. See http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtDNT/WSDNT000/24982/25474/307684?d=dmtContent
  2. Hodge, H.C. and Smith, F.A. (1965). Fluorine Chemistry Vol. IV. Academic Press, New York.
  3. Gleason, M.N., Gosselin, R.E., Hodge, H.C., & Smith, R.P. (1969). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 3rd Ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

11 | Nutritional Deficiences Exacerbate Fluoride's Toxicity:

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (1993). Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine (F). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. ATSDR/TP-91/17.
  2. Marier J, Rose D. (1977). Environmental Fluoride. National Research Council of Canada. Associate Committe on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality. NRCC No. 16081. (Report available online at: http://www.fluoridealert.org/NRC-fluoride.htm)
  3. Teotia M, Teotia SP, Singh KP. (1998). Endemic chronic fluoride toxicity and dietary calcium deficiency interaction syndromes of metabolic bone disease and deformities in India: year 2000. Indian J Pediatr. 65(3):371-81.
  4. Teotia SPS, et al. (1984). Environmental Fluoride and Metabolic Bone Disease, An Epidemiological Study (Fluoride and Nutrition Interactions) Fluoride. 17(1): 14-22.

12 | Total Fluoride Exposure on the Increase:

  1. Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE. (2000). Fluoride intake and prevalence of dental fluorosis: trends in fluoride intake with special attention to infants. J Public Health Dent. 60(3):131-9.
  2. Mascarenhas AK. (2000). Risk factors for dental fluorosis: a review of the recent literature. Pediatr Dent. 22(4):269-77.
  3. Marier JR. (1977). Some current aspects of environmental fluoride. Sci Total Environ 8(3):253-65.

13 | 29.9% of US Children in Fluoridated Areas have Dental Fluorosis on 2 teeth:

Heller KE et al (1997). Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis at Varying Water Fluoride Concentrations. J of Pub Health Dent, 57; No. 3, 136-143.

14 | Infant Formula Reconstituted with Fluoridated Water Increases Risk for Dental Fluorosis:

  1. Pendrys, DG. (2000). Risk of enamel fluorosis in nonfluoridated and optimally fluoridated populations: considerations for the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc. Vol. 131 No. 6: 746-55.
  2. Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE. (2000). Fluoride intake and prevalence of dental fluorosis: trends in fluoride intake with special attention to infants. J Public Health Dent. 60(3):131-9.
  3. Mascarenhas AK. (2000). Risk factors for dental fluorosis: a review of the recent literature. Pediatr Dent. 22(4):269-77.
  4. Pendrys DG, Katz RV. (1998). Risk factors for enamel fluorosis in optimally fluoridated children born after the US manufacturers' decision to reduce the fluoride concentration of infant formula. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 148 No. 10: 967-74.
  5. Lewis DW, Limeback H. (1996). Comparison of recommended and actual mean intakes of fluoride by Canadians. J Can Dent Assoc. Vol. 62 No. 9: 708-9, 712-5.
  6. Clark DC, et al. (1994). Influence of exposure to various fluoride technologies on the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol Vol. 22 No. 6: 461-4.
  7. Pendrys DG et al. (1994). Risk factors for enamel fluorosis in a fluoridated population. Am J Epidemiol Vol. 140 No. 5: 461-71.
  8. See also:

  9. Buzalaf MA, et al. (2001). Fluoride content of infant formulas prepared with deionized, bottled mineral and fluoridated drinking water. ASDC J Dent Child. Vol. 68 No. 1: 37-41.
  10. Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J. (1999). Fluoride intake by infants. J Public Health Dent Vol. 59 No. 4: 229-34.
  11. Levy SM, et al. (2001). Patterns of fluoride intake from birth to 36 months. J Public Health Dent 61(2):70-7.
  12. Van Winkle S, et al. (1995). Water and formula fluoride concentrations: significance for infants fed formula. Pediatr Dent. Vol. 17 No. 4: 305-10.

15 | Fluoride Levels in Women's Breast Milk 100 times Lower than in Fluoridated Water:

Institute of Medicine. (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press.

16 | Fluoride is Not an Essential Nutrient (No disease, including tooth decay, has ever been linked to a fluoride deficiency):

National Research Council (1993). Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington DC. See page 30.

17 | An average of 50% of Ingested Fluoride Accumulates in the Body:

National Research Council (1993). Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington DC. See page 131.

18 | See UNICEF's Report on Fluoride:

UNICEF Water, Environment & Sanitation. Fluoride in water: An overview. Waterfront December 1999 http://www.unicef.org/programme/wes/info/fluor.htm

19 | Calcium Deficiency Exacerbates the Toxic Effects of Fluoride on Bone:

  1. Teotia M, Teotia SP, Singh KP. (1998). Endemic chronic fluoride toxicity and dietary calcium deficiency interaction syndromes of metabolic bone disease and deformities in India: year 2000. Indian J Pediatr. 65(3):371-81.
  2. Li G, Ren L. (1998). [Effects of excess fluoride on bone turnover under conditions of diet with different calcium contents] [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 26(5):277-80.

20 | Chemical & Engineering News Review of Fluoridation:

Hileman, B. (1988). Fluoridation of water. Questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chemical and Engineering News. August 1, 1988, 26-42. http://www.fluoridealert.org/hileman.htm

21 | WHO: Early Stages of Skeletal Fluorosis can be Misdiagnosed as Osteo- and Rhematoid-Arthritis:

World Health Organization. (1970). Fluorides and Human Health. pp 32, 239-240

22 | Clinical Trials Examining the Effectiveness of Fluoride Therapy for the treatment of Osteoporosis:

  1. Hedlund LR, Gallagher JC. (1989). Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride. J Bone Miner Res Apr;4(2):223-5.
  2. Riggs, B.L. et al (1990). Effect of Fluoride treatment on the Fracture Rates in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. N. Eng. J. Med., 322, 802-809.
  3. Bayley TA, et al. (1990). Fluoride-induced fractures: relation to osteogenic effect. J Bone Miner Res Mar;5 Suppl 1:S217-22.

23 | New England Journal of Medicine Editorial Discussing Fluoride & Bone:

Lindsay, R. (1990). Fluoride and Bone - Quantity Versus Quality. Editorial. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 322. No. 12. March 22. http://www.fluoridealert.org/NEJM-bone.htm

24 | Water Fluoride/Hip Fracture Studies:

a) Studies Reporting an Association between water fluoride (<4 ppm) & hip fracture:

  1. Cooper, C., C. Wickham, et al. (1990). "Water fluoride concentration and fracture of the proximal femur." J Epidemiol Community Health 44: 17-19.
  2. Cooper, C., C. Wickham, et al. (1991). "Water fluoridation and hip fracture." JAMA 266: 513-514 (letter, a reanalysis of data presented in 1990 paper).

    "We found a significant positive correlation between fluoride levels and discharge rates for hip fracture. This relationship persisted for both women and men...Using an appropriately weighted regression model, there appears to be a positive ecologic association between fluoride levels of county water supplies and fracture discharge rates. This ecologic association is consistent with a recently published study and others currently in progress."

  3. Danielson, C., J. L. Lyon, et al. (1992). "Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population." Journal of the American Medical Association 268(6): 746-748.
  4. "We found a small but significant increase in the risk of hip fracture in both men and women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm, suggesting that low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly."

  5. Hegmann, K.T. et al (2000) the Effects of Fluoridation on Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) and Hip Fractures.Abstract #71, of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society For Epidemiological research, June 15-17, 2000. Published in a Supplement of Am. J. Epid.
  6. "The only age adjusted rate achieving statistical significance was the age-specific rate for hip fracture among women 75-84 years, with a RR = 1.43 (95% CI, 1.02-1.84). The rate of hip fracture among women aged 85+ approached significance with a RR = 1.42 (CI, 0.98 - 1.87)."

  7. Jacobsen, S., J. Goldberg, et al. (1992). "The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older; a national ecologic study." Annals of Epidemiology 2: 617-626.
  8. "There was a small statistically significant positive association between fracture rates and fluoridation. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of fracture in fluoridated counties compared to nonfluoridated counties was 1.08 (1.06 to 1.10) for women and 1.17 (1.13 to 1.22) for men."

  9. Jacobsen, S., J. Goldberg, et al. (1990). "Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women aged 65 years and olders." J Am Med Assoc 264(4): 500-2.
  10. "The results from the ecological regression analysis suggest that soft and fluoridated water, poverty, reduced sunlight exposure, and rural location all increase the risk of hip fracture."

  11. Jacqmin-Gadda, H. (1995). "Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly." JAMA 273: 775-776 (letter).
  12. Jacqmin-Gadda, H., A. Fourrier, et al. (1998). "Risk factors for fractures in the elderly." Epidemiology 9(4): 417-423. (An elaboration of the 1995 study referred to in the JAMA letter).

    "We found a higher risk of hip fractures for subjects exposed to fluorine concentrations over 0.11 mg per liter but without a dose-effect relation."

  13. Keller, C. (1991) Fluorides in drinking water. Unpublished results. Discussed in Gordon, S.L. and Corbin, S.B,(1992) Summary of Workshop on Drinking Water Fluoride Influence on Hip Fracture on Bone Health. Osteoporosis Int. 2, 109-117.
  14. "In general, with increasing dose of fluoride in the drinking water the hip fracture ratio also increased."

  15. Kurttio, P., N. Gustavsson, et al. (1999). "Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: A cohort analysis in Finland." American Journal of Epidemiology 150(8): 817-824.
  16. "[A]mong younger women, those aged 50-64 years, higher fluoride levels increased the risk of hip fractures."

  17. Li Y, et al. (2001). Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. J Bone Miner Res.16(5):932-9.
  18. "The prevalence of hip fractures was highest in the group with the highest water fluoride...It is concluded that long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water containing > or =4.32 ppm increases the risk of overall fractures as well as hip fractures."

  19. May, D.S. and Wilson, M.G. Hip fractures in relation to water fluoridation: an ecologic analysis. Unpublished data, discussed in Gordon, S.L. and Corbin S.B.,(1992), Summary of Workshop on Drinking Water Fluoride Inflruenbce on Hip Fracture on Bone Health. Osteoporosis Int. 2, 109-117.
  20. "As the percentage of individuals exposed to fluoridated water increased within a county, the hip fracture rate generally rose for both sexes...Adjustment for county latitude and longitude produced higher correlation values and significance for females and males."

  21. Sowers, M., M. Clark, et al. (1991). "A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure." American Journal of Epidemiology 133: 649-660.
  22. "Residence in the higher-fluoride community was associated with a significantly lower radial bone mass in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, an increased rate of radial bone mass loss in premenopausal women, and significantly more fractures among postmenopausal women."

b) Studies Reporting No Association between water fluoride & hip fracture:

  1. Cauley, J., P. Murphy, et al. (1995). "Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: the study of osteoporotic fractures." J Bone Min Res 10(7): 1076-86.
  2. Feskanich D., et al. (1998). Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Epidemiology 9(4): 412-6.
  3. While this study didn't find an association between water fluoride and hip fracture, it did find an association - albeit non-significant 1.6 (0.8-3.1) - between fluoride exposure and elevated rates of forearm fracture.

  4. Hillier, S., C. Copper, et al. (2000). "Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case control study." The Lancet 335: 265-2690.
  5. Read critique of this study at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/00-33-1/331-1.pdf

  6. Jacobsen, S.J. et al (1993). Hip Fracture Incidence Before and After the Fluoridation of the Public Water Supply, Rochester, Minnesota. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 743-745.
  7. Karagas,M.R. et al (1996). "Patterns of Fracture among the United States Elderly: Geographic and Fluoride Effects." Ann. Epidemiol. 6 (3), 209-216.
  8. As with Feskanich (1998) this study didn't find an association between fluoridation & hip fracture, but it did find an association between fluoridation and distal forearm fracture, as well as proximal humerus fracture. "Independent of geographic effects, men in fluoridated areas had modestly higher rates of fractures of the distal forearm and proximal humerus than did men in nonfluoridated areas."

  9. Lehmann R. et al (1998). Drinking Water Fluoridation: Bone Mineral Density and Hip Fracture Incidence. Bone, 22, 273-278.
  10. Phipps, K. R. (2000). Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women. British Medical Journal, 321: 860-4.
  11. As with Feskanich (1998) and Karagas (1996), this study didn't find an association between water fluoride & hip fracture, but it did find an association between water fluoride and other types of fracture - in this case, wrist fracture. "There was a non-significant trend toward an increased risk of wrist fracture." For a critique of this study, see http://www.fluoridealert.org/phipps.htm

  12. Suarez-Almazor, M., G. Flowerdew, et al. (1993). "The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities." Am J Public Health 83: 689-693.
  13. Interestingly, while the authors of this study conclude that there is no association between fluoridation and hip fracture, their own data reveals a different picture. Namely, a statistically significant increase in hip fracture for men living in the fluoridated area. According to the authors, "although a statistically significant increase in the risk of hip fracture was observed among Edmonton men, this increase was relatively small (RR=1.12)."

25 | Neurotoxic Effects of Sodium Fluoride:

Mullenix, P. et al (1995).Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 17, 169-177. (Read statement from lead author of this study, Dr. Phyllis Mullenix, at http://www.fluoridealert.org/pmullenix2.htm)

26 | Chinese Studies Concerning Relationship between Fluoride & Decreased IQ:

  1. Li, X.S., (1995). Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children. Fluoride, 28:4, 189-192
  2. Li Y, Li X, Wei S. (1994). [Effect of excessive fluoride intake on mental work capacity of children and a preliminary study of its mechanism] Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao Jun;25(2):188-91.
  3. Lin Fa-Fu; et al (1991). The relationship of a low-iodine and high-fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter. Vol. 7. No. 3.
  4. Lu, Y. et al (2000). Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence of children. Fluoride, 33, 74-78.
  5. Zhao, L.B. et al (1996). Effect of high-fluoride water supply on children's intelligence. Fluoride, 29, 190-192.

See also:

Spittle, B. (2000). Fluoride and Intelligence (Editorial). Fluoride Vol. 33 No. 2: 49-52. http://www.fluoride-journal.com/00-33-2/332-49.pdf

27 | Fluoride & Pineal Gland:

  1. Luke, J. (1997). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildord.
  2. Luke, J. (2001). Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland. Caries Res. 35:125-128.

28 | European Doctors Used Fluoride to Treat Hyperthyroidism:

  1. Stecher, P, et al. (1960). The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs. Merck & Co., Inc, Rathway NJ.
  2. Waldbott, G.L., Burgstahler, A.W. and McKinney, H.L. Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma. Coronado Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, 1978.
  3. See also:

  4. Schuld, A. (1999). Fluoride-Iodine Antagonism: Some History. Parents for Fluoride Poisoned Children. See http://www.fluoridealert.org/f-iodine.htm

29 | US Government Data on Total Fluoride Intake (1.6-6.6 mg/day) in Fluoridated Communities:

DHHS (1991). Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. Department of Health and Human Services, USA.

30 | Study Discussing Dosage of Fluoride (2.3-4.5 mg/day) Found to Depress Thyroid Gland:

Galletti, P. & Joyet, G. (1958). Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology; 18:1102-1110 http://www.fluoridealert.org/galletti.htm

31 | Brain Research Study Reporting that Fluoride Administers the Uptake of Aluminum into the Brain:

Varner, J.A. et al (1998). "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity" Brain Research, 784, 284-298.

32 | Epidemiological Studies Reporting Association Between Fluoridated Water and Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children:

Masters, R. et al. (2000). Association of Silicofluoride Treated Water with Elevated Blood Lead. Neurotoxicology. 21:6, 1091-1099.

33 | Another Epidemiological Study Reporting Association Between Fluoridated Water and Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children:

Masters, R.D. and Coplan, M. (1999). "Water treatment with Silicofluorides and Lead Toxicity" International Journal of Environmental Studies. September.

34 | Fluoride is a Mutagen:

Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Review of fluoride benefits and risks. Appendix H. H1-H6.

35 | EPA's Dr. William Marcus Discussing his Objections to the NTP's Downgrading of the Tumors:

  1. Marcus, W. (1990). Memorandum from Dr. William Marcus,to Alan B. Hais, Acting Director Criteria & Standards Division ODW, US EPA, DATED MAY 1, 1990, and subsequent memos. These can be viewed on the web at http://www.fluoridealert.org/marcus.htm
  2. Marcus, W. (1995). Radio Interview with Dr. Gary Null. March 10.See www.fluoridealert.org/ifin-19.htm

36 | Study Finding Decreased Female Fertility in Areas with Elevated Fluoride in the Water:

Freni SC. (1994). Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates. J Toxicology and Environmental Health 42:109-121.

37 | Statement from EPA Headquarters Union on Why they Oppose Fluoridation:

Hirzy, J.W. (1999). Why the EPA's Headquarters Union of Scientists Opposes Fluoridation. Press release from National Treasury Employees Union, May 1, 1999. (for text see http://www.fluoridealert.org/HP-Epa.htm)