Climate Change https://www.iatp.org/ en Thu, 12 May 2022 18:19:10 +0000 IATP Response to the European Commission's initiative "Certification of Carbon Removals - EU Rules" https://www.iatp.org/documents/iatp-response-european-commissions-initiative-certification-carbon-removals-eu-rules <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss field-primary-category-climate-change has-field-primary-category has-field-teaser-image title-not-empty ds-1col clearfix"> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/about/staff/sophie-scherger" hreflang="en">Sophie Scherger</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy welcomes the opportunity to give feedback on the planned carbon removal certification framework. We urge the European Commission to fundamentally rethink its approach on integrating carbon removals into the EU climate framework.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-upload field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Upload</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-05/IATP_Feedback_EC_PublicConsultationCarbonRemovals_12May2022_Upload.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=3277248" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">IATP_Feedback_EC_PublicConsultationCarbonRemovals_12May2022_Upload.pdf</a></span><span class="file-size">3.13 MB</span></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Primary category</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/issues/climate-change" hreflang="en">Climate Change</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Teaser image</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/media/9929" hreflang="en">Farm Bill ignores climate change—mostly</a></div> </div> </div> Thu, 12 May 2022 18:19:10 +0000 Ben Lilliston 44790 at https://www.iatp.org Rethinking the EU’s approach to carbon removals and agriculture https://www.iatp.org/blog/202205/rethinking-eus-approach-carbon-removals-and-agriculture <span>Rethinking the EU’s approach to carbon removals and agriculture</span> <span><span lang="" about="/about/staff/account/ben-lilliston" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Ben Lilliston</span></span> <span>Thu, 05/12/2022 - 11:56</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span>In December 2021, the European Commission (EC) <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/clima/system/files/2021-12/com_2021_800_en_0.pdf">released its plan</a> for EU-wide legislation that aims to certify carbon credits for CO<sub>2</sub> removals, also referred to as the Carbon Removal Certification Framework (CRCF).</span></span></span></p></div> Thu, 12 May 2022 16:56:10 +0000 Ben Lilliston 44789 at https://www.iatp.org World’s largest meat company, JBS, increases emissions by 51% in five years despite 2040 net zero climate target, continues to greenwash its huge climate footprint https://www.iatp.org/media-brief-jbs-increases-emissions-51-percent <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss field-primary-category-industrial-livestock has-field-primary-category has-field-teaser-image title-not-empty ds-1col clearfix"> <div class="field field--name-field-author-text field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author (free form)</div> <div class="field--item"><p>DeSmog </p> <p>Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy</p> <p>Feedback </p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/feat/public/2022-04/JBS.png?itok=qoh9Wgex" width="950" height="590" alt="JBS Net Zero" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-caption field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span style="font-size:11.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#1d1c1d">Credit: Pete Reynolds ©</span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3>Rising Emissions: Misleading investors and the public </h3> <blockquote><p>"Some government and business leaders are saying one thing – but doing another. Simply put, they are lying – and the results will be catastrophic." UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres</p> </blockquote> <p>That’s how UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres presented the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released earlier this month. He could have easily been talking about Brazilian meat giant JBS and its misleading net zero target.</p> <p>The company, which is the largest meat processor in the world, increased its annual greenhouse gas emissions by a whopping 51% between 2016 and 2021, from 280 million metric tonnes to 421.6 million metric tonnes (mmts), based on the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP)’s latest calculations.<sup>1</sup></p> <p>This is more than fossil fuel giant Total’s 2020 emissions.<sup>2</sup> It is more than Italy’s annual climate footprint and 95% of France’s (at 443 mmt). As JBS prepares for its annual general meeting (AGM) on 22 April in São Paulo, this briefing outlines how the company’s “green” claims fail to live up to reality and the meat giant continues to mislead in its communications with investors and the public.</p> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="blob:https://iatp.sharepoint.com/79a364b7-31e8-49a3-9446-72ba8116c2c9" /><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="blob:https://iatp.sharepoint.com/79a364b7-31e8-49a3-9446-72ba8116c2c9" /><img alt="JBS Emissions Increase" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="c53eaec9-1b73-4f3a-ad1a-ba9a7f43aca9" height="317" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/JBS%20emissions%20increase.png" width="317" /></p> <p>JBS is promising to reach net zero emissions by 2040 and has been working hard to paint itself as an ally in the fight against climate change. It signed a joint declaration with governments at the COP26 climate summit to develop a Paris Agreement-aligned sector plan and issued a “Sustainability Linked” bond soon after.</p> <p>But JBS’s “net zero” plan is heavy on rhetoric and light on detail, conveniently ignoring the company’s principal source of emissions: the increasing number of animals in its global supply chain (sometimes referred to as “Scope 3” emissions).<sup>3</sup></p> <p>The number of animals in JBS’s supply chain in the past five years has increased substantially: the number of cattle has increased by 54%, pigs by 67% and chickens by 40%, resulting in the enormous increase in emissions. For industrial livestock companies, the animals in their supply chains make up 90-97% of their emissions. In 2021, JBS processed 26.8 million cattle, 46.7 million pigs and 4.9 billion chickens.<sup>4</sup> Both the livestock numbers and the emissions are a conservative estimate given the lack of transparency in the industry regarding the number of animals they slaughter.</p> <p><img alt="JBS Livestock Increases" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a4564c5a-7c26-40f3-b1b9-9effdfb33fe9" height="317" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/JBS%20livestock%20increases.png" width="317" /></p> <p>JBS increased its climate footprint even by the metric that the livestock industry most prefers – “emissions intensity”. This sees companies focus on reporting efficiency – measuring their emissions per kilo of meat – as opposed to the total.</p> <p>In 2020, JBS pledged to make a 30% cut within 10 years to its Scope 1 and 2 emissions, which covers greenhouse gases emitted directly or indirectly by the company’s operations (limited to its plants and offices).</p> <p> Yet, JBS reported in 2021 that its emissions intensity actually increased by 30% between 2019 and 2020, according to figures it submitted to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP).<sup>5</sup></p> <p>The company has been rapidly expanding in recent years by buying up rivals and increasing its share of the supply chain, with 250,000 employees globally. Its customers include well-known chains such as Burger King, McDonald’s, Tesco and Walmart.</p> <p>JBS is currently listed on the Brazilian stock exchange but is seeking an initial public offering (IPO) in the U.S. – something it has been pursuing for several years.</p> <p>But if the world is to have a hope of tackling the agriculture sector’s climate impacts, JBS and other livestock companies must disclose their emissions in full, including Scope 3 emissions (i.e., those emitted all along its supply chain) while governments must enact stronger laws on deforestation and regulate the industry’s spiraling emissions.</p> <p>Below, JBS’s “green” claims are compared with the reality of their operations.</p> <table border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 740px;"><thead><tr><th scope="col" style="width: 275px;">JBS's "Green" claims</th> <th scope="col" style="width: 444px;">The reality</th> </tr></thead><tbody><tr><td style="width: 275px;">“On a path to <a href="https://jbs.com.br/en/jbs-news-en/jbs-announces-global-commitment-to-achieve-net-zero-greenhouse-gas-emissions-by-2040/">net zero by 2040</a>”</td> <td style="width: 444px;"> <ul><li>No commitment to measure, disclose or cut Scope 3 emissions, despite the fact they represent up to 97% of JBS’s climate footprint</li> <li>No target to measure, disclose or cut methane</li> <li>Will not stop deforestation across its global supply chain before 2035</li> <li>No accountability mechanism to ensure this target is met</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td style="width: 275px;">“Praised for our efforts to <a href="https://api.mziq.com/mzfilemanager/v2/d/043a77e1-0127-4502-bc5b-21427b991b22/ac737ffe-594f-b944-298a-43cae6d82f63?origin=1">fight deforestation</a>”</td> <td style="width: 444px;"> <ul><li>Multiple investigations have found that JBS’s activities are driving deforestation</li> <li>JBS admits that it currently causes illegal deforestation and will only eliminate this by 2025</li> <li>Deforestation footprint estimated to run into the hundreds of thousands of hectares and to be over 1.5 million hectares in its indirect supply chains</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td style="width: 275px;">“<a href="https://api.mziq.com/mzfilemanager/v2/d/043a77e1-0127-4502-bc5b-21427b991b22/8dff7fe0-ab81-914a-e2d8-b230f412b82f?origin=1">Supporting firefighters</a> and other environmental protection initiatives”</td> <td style="width: 444px;"> <ul><li>JBS suppliers have been found to be linked to fires</li> <li>Cattle ranching is main driver of fires</li> <li>Net zero target has no commitment to end intentional use of fires to clear land</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td style="width: 275px;">“Innovating to <a href="https://api.mziq.com/mzfilemanager/v2/d/043a77e1-0127-4502-bc5b-21427b991b22/ac737ffe-594f-b944-298a-43cae6d82f63?origin=1">reduce methane</a>”</td> <td style="width: 444px;"> <ul><li>Expanding mass production of livestock will wipe out any gains</li> <li>No scientific evidence that feed additives will make a sizeable difference to methane emissions</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td style="width: 275px;">“Boosting <a href="https://api.mziq.com/mzfilemanager/v2/d/043a77e1-0127-4502-bc5b-21427b991b22/8dff7fe0-ab81-914a-e2d8-b230f412b82f?origin=1">green energy</a>”</td> <td style="width: 444px;"> <ul><li>Energy use is a small proportion of JBS’s emissions</li> <li>JBS is making a profit selling carbon credits from its biodiesel plants, without proof this is deforestation-free</li> </ul></td> </tr><tr><td style="width: 275px;">“Producing meat <a href="https://api.mziq.com/mzfilemanager/v2/d/043a77e1-0127-4502-bc5b-21427b991b22/8dff7fe0-ab81-914a-e2d8-b230f412b82f?origin=1">more efficiently</a>”</td> <td style="width: 444px;"> <ul><li>Number of JBS slaughterhouses has more than doubled in recent years</li> <li>JBS’s direct cattle supplier farms in the Amazon rose from 7,700 to 16,900 between 2009 and 2020</li> <li>Rapid expansion is cancelling out efficiency gains</li> </ul></td> </tr></tbody></table><h3><em>"On a path to net zero by 2040" </em></h3> <p>In March 2021, JBS announced a goal of reaching net zero emissions by 2040, in what it claims is a first for a major livestock company. Its CEO has described the pledge as JBS’s “most important commitment”.</p> <p>But the target currently lacks any credibility. This is not only because of JBS’s continued refusal to disclose its full emissions, but also because the company only plans to cut Scope 1 and 2 emissions by 2030, which account for less than 10% of its climate footprint. Expanding mass production of livestock will wipe out any gains in emissions reduction, something the company has itself admitted. Independent estimates suggest that its indirect “Scope 3” emissions, which cover the whole of its supply chain, represent as much as 97% of JBS’s contribution to climate change.</p> <p>While the company claims its total emissions for 2020 were only 6.8 Mt CO2-equivalent, this figure excludes emissions from the animals in its supply chain, the production of animal feed and emissions from deforestation, which together make up the vast majority of the company’s climate footprint.</p> <p><img alt="JBS claims vs reality" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9289f104-9699-4f94-ada5-1e3946781edf" height="341" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/JBS%20claims%20vs%20reality.png" width="341" /></p> <p>The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) and GRAIN calculated JBS’s 2016 emissions to be 280 Mt CO2-eq, using the UN-approved GLEAM model. This is roughly half that of oil majors like ExxonMobil, Shell and BP, and equivalent to the total emissions of Taiwan or one-fifth of Brazil’s. Since then, JBS has only increased the number of animals in its supply chain. JBS’s scope 1 and 2 target is only a reduction in “emissions intensity”, so emissions are likely to continue rising in absolute terms, given the company’s growth ambitions.</p> <p>The plan also states that an unspecified proportion of the target will be reached through carbon sequestration in the future, but provides no timescale or details on how these offsets will be achieved. Land-based carbon sequestration is easily reversible due to human and natural events, with the IPCC’s recent 6th Assessment report warning that this carbon is increasingly vulnerable to release due to climate change.</p> <p>JBS claims that its emissions reduction target was recognised by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) in June 2021, but this has still not been validated. It refuses to disclose its full emissions to both SBTi and CDP.</p> <p>The company’s net zero goal was ranked “very low” for both transparency and integrity in a recent report by the New Climate Institute think tank.</p> <h3><em>"Praise for our efforts to fight deforestation" </em></h3> <p>JBS boasts about being “classified as the Brazilian protein company with the lowest risk of links to deforestation in its operations”, according to Forest 500 rankings. It also says it is one of the most sustainable livestock companies globally, according to the Coller Fairr Protein Producer ranking.</p> <p>But in its 2040 net zero target, JBS admits that it currently causes illegal deforestation and will only eliminate this by 2025. Legal deforestation will continue until 2035, under the company’s target.</p> <p>This commitment is itself merely a reiteration of a deforestation promise it made in 2009 and has failed to keep.<br /> JBS’s total deforestation footprint in six Brazilian states since 2008 has been conservatively estimated at 200,000 hectares (ha) in its direct supply chain and 1.5 million ha in its indirect supply chain.</p> <p>Multiple investigations have found evidence of JBS suppliers causing both legal and illegal deforestation in recent years.</p> <p>In January 2022, a Bloomberg investigation concluded that JBS was “one of the biggest drivers of Amazon deforestation”.</p> <p>In November 2021, the New York Times linked leather in luxury SUVs to JBS cattle production and illegal deforestation in Brazil.</p> <p>In October 2021, Brazilian federal prosecutors concluded that JBS had purchased over 300,000 cattle from ranches with “irregularities” the previous year, including illegal deforestation in the Amazon region, and that the situation was worsening.</p> <p>In 2020, a joint investigation by Repórter Brasil, the Bureau of Investigative Journalism and The Guardian found evidence connecting JBS to cattle supplied from a farm in the Brazilian Amazon under sanction for illegal deforestation.</p> <p>Cattle ranching accounts for 80% of deforestation in the Amazon, according to Yale’s Global Forest Atlas, and is also a leading cause of deforestation in Australia, where JBS is the largest meat processing company.</p> <h3><em>"Supporting firefighters and other environmental protection initiatives" </em></h3> <p>In recent years, images of forest fires in the Amazon and Pantanal wetlands of Brazil have shocked the world and spurred political action.</p> <p>JBS says it is partnering with a conservation charity to preserve the biodiversity-rich Araguaia corridor in the Amazon and that it is “supporting” 80 fire brigades to tackle fires in the Pantanal wetlands, as well as five teams from the Aliança da Terra NGO.</p> <p>The company says it is issuing real-time alerts to firefighters using satellites and cameras installed on farms.</p> <p>But the main driver of biodiversity destruction and fires is cattle ranching, with ranchers even suspected by police of starting them. A Greenpeace investigation last year found that JBS had purchased beef from ranchers linked to the 2020 Pantanal fires and was still failing to guarantee that its supply chain was free of this beef. The company’s net zero pledge does not include any commitment to end the use of fires to clear land on its ranches.</p> <h3><em>"Innovating to reduce methane" </em></h3> <p>In its recently published 2021 Management Report, JBS describes how it is developing feed additives to cut methane emissions from cattle and claims to have made progress already in cutting the powerful greenhouse gas from its supply chain.<br /> JBS also says it is investing in the “circular economy” by recycling plastic and using biodiesel and organic fertilisers, as well as using blockchain technology to better monitor its supply chain.</p> <p>Whatever limited impact these techno-fixes may have, they are far outweighed by the company’s overall emissions and continuing plans to expand.</p> <p>Its feed additive is still in development, and there is no evidence yet that it will make a meaningful dent in methane emissions from cattle.</p> <p>Methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) emissions are responsible for almost one-quarter of global warming, with a warming impact 84 times as high as CO2 over a 20-year period. UN studies show agriculture is the largest human-made source of methane, with livestock producing 32% of emissions. According to the IPCC, reducing global methane emissions in particular by 2030 and 2040 will reduce the likelihood of reaching peak warming and overshooting warming limits.</p> <p>Methane emissions reduction proved a key theme at the COP26 summit in Glasgow, with countries and businesses pledging to slash emissions of this often overlooked greenhouse gas, and the latest IPCC report specifically recommended that methane emissions be slashed by one-third by 2030 in order to hold temperature rise to 1.5°C.</p> <h3><em>"Boosting green energy" </em></h3> <p>In its 2021 Q4 earnings presentation, JBS says it is increasingly running its operations on renewable energy, with “100% renewable electricity sources” at its Pilgrim’s UK subsidiary and a target of 100% solar-powered stores for its Swift subsidiary in Brazil.</p> <p>As part of its net zero goal, the company pledges to power its facilities around the world with 100% renewable energy by 2040.<br /> But JBS’s energy use constitutes a small proportion of its overall emissions, so the switch to renewables will make little difference to JBS’s climate footprint.</p> <p>Moreover, JBS counts methane gas captured from giant manure lagoons sourced from megafarms as renewable energy, despite this causing an array of environmental impacts and incentivising industrial livestock production. Furthermore the company is making millions selling carbon credits from its biodiesel plants, even though the fuel is made with animal fat from its slaughterhouse operations and there is no traceability showing it to be a deforestation-free product. In 2020, JBS generated 430,000 Decarbonization Credits (CBios) through the production of biodiesel. Considering the average price of a CBio over the past year (R$ 43), JBS may have profited by more than R$ 18 million (3,5 M Euros) from the operation, not counting the amount received from the sale of the biofuel itself.</p> <p>Finally, JBS also pushed false solutions like sending manure and slurries from their factory farms to anaerobic digestors. Biogas from such agriculture facilities has been labelled “factory farm gas” by many campaigners because, in a similar way to carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies being applied to coal power stations, biogas may mitigate some emissions from the manure but incentivizes operations to expand their number of animals to produce even more manure. For instance, biogas subsidies in Northern Ireland have facilitated an explosion in the size of factory farmed chicken and pigs, with one of the major beneficiaries being Moy Park (part of Pilgrim’s Pride, majority owned by JBS) which now not only saves money on waste disposal but is also paid by the digestors for their manure.<sup>6</sup></p> <h3><em>"Producing meat more efficiently" </em></h3> <p>JBS claims to be producing meat more efficiently by increasing its feed conversion ratio, thereby cutting the “emissions intensity” of its products. But in its most recent disclosure to CDP for 2020, JBS reported that its emissions intensity – covering just scope 1 and 2 emissions – had increased by 30% since the previous year.</p> <p>Even if the company manages to cut its emissions intensity in future years, its rapid growth will easily cancel out any efficiency gains. The company’s base of direct cattle supplier farms in the Amazon more than doubled between 2009 and 2020, from around 7,700 to 16,900. The number of JBS slaughterhouses in the Amazon also more than doubled over this period, a recent Bloomberg investigation found.</p> <h3>A history of violations </h3> <p>JBS also has a long history of breaking the law over non-environmental issues, raising further doubts about the likelihood of its compliance with the 2040 net zero target.</p> <p>In just the last few months and years, JBS has:</p> <ul><li>Settled with US Department of Justice for $53 million for price-fixing scheme in beef markets (February 2022)</li> <li>Obtained court approval to settle price fixing in the poultry market for $76 million (December 2021)</li> <li> Agreed to pay $12.7 million to settle pork price-fixing charges (November 2021)</li> <li>Been fined $59,000 by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration due to a fatality at a JBS operation (October 2021)</li> <li>Settled charges with the US Security Exchange Commission over Foreign Corrupt Practices Act violations for $27 million (2020)</li> <li>Been fined multiple times for failing to adequately protect its employees at various plants during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020)</li> <li>Seen six executives of JBS’s poultry division Pilgrim’s Pride personally indicted on federal price-fixing charges (2020)</li> <li>Paid $3.2 billion for bribing finance officials in Brazil to obtain government-backed loans (2017)</li> </ul><h3>Industry-wide problems</h3> <p>The greenwashing outlined above is far from unique to JBS. Livestock companies consistently fail to disclose their full emissions – or under-report them by excluding indirect (scope 3) emissions, as reports from IATP in 2018 and 2021 show. The industry is responsible for as much as 19% of global greenhouse gas emissions and is under growing pressure from scientists, campaigners and the general public for this vast contribution to climate change. In response, companies and their trade associations have developed a series of public relations techniques to reassure consumers that no significant action is needed: by setting ambitious-sounding targets and claiming to develop innovative solutions.</p> <p>Without transitioning away from the industrial model of animal agriculture, the world’s remaining forests face destruction and “agriculture alone would produce almost twice the emissions allowable from all human activities” by 2050, according to the World Resources Institute.</p> <h3>What investors, food companies and governments should do </h3> <p>Feedback and the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy are calling for:</p> <ul><li>Investors, banks and financiers to divest from JBS and its subsidiaries, following the example of Nordea, and exclude JBS from their investment funds and bond portfolios. Three of JBS’s six largest investors (Fidelity, Vanguard and BlackRock) are members of the Net Zero Asset Managers Initiative, which claims to be “committed to supporting the goal of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 or sooner”. Many other smaller JBS investors are also signed up to the scheme. JBS’s second largest stake is owned by BNDES, Brazil’s publicly-owned development bank. Other financial institutions, such as Barclays, which provided $860 million in financial backing to JBS last year alone7, should cease to provide its services to the company.</li> <li>The Brazilian government to divest all financing for JBS via Brazil’s BNDES development bank.</li> <li>Supermarkets, retailers and food service companies to drop JBS and its subsidiaries as a meat supplier.</li> <li>JBS to report all its emissions – both direct and indirect – including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and allow an independent third party to verify its net zero claims.</li> <li>JBS to report all of its offsets, including specific project details.</li> <li>Governments to introduce strong, enforceable rules against deforestation, including agriculture-driven deforestation.</li> <li>Governments to regulate factory farm methane emissions, i.e. large-scale cattle, dairy and pork production.</li> <li>Governments to regulate nitrous oxide emissions, particularly the excess use of nitrogen fertiliser often linked to animal feed production worldwide.</li> </ul><h3>Endnotes </h3> <p>1. Using the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s GLEAM model, GRAIN and IATP calculated JBS’s 2016 emissions in <a href="https://www.iatp.org/emissions-impossible">Emissions Impossible 2018</a>. IATP has used the same methodology to update the company’s 2021 emissions. See <a href="https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/13G4bWV7kL3hiSjkWA5q1_qWCiRJKCuxb/edit#gid=1089782244">Dataset here</a>.</p> <p>2. Total Energies emissions 2020: 417 MtCO2e; Richard Heede, Climate Accountability Institute, personal communication, 9 April 2022. See also, our <a href="https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/13G4bWV7kL3hiSjkWA5q1_qWCiRJKCuxb/edit#gid=1089782244">Dataset</a>, “Comparisons” worksheet comparing JBS’s emissions with that of other carbon majors and countries.</p> <p>3. The livestock sector is the single largest contributor to anthropogenic <a href="http://changingmarkets.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/CM-WEB-FINAL-REPORT-METHANE-MATTERS-1-1.pdf">methane emissions</a>; deforestation linked to<a href="https://chainreactionresearch.com/report/cattle-driven-deforestation-a-major-risk-to-brazilian-retailers/"> cattle ranching and the production of animal feed</a>, meat processing and transport also make a significant contribution to climate change.</p> <p>4. <a href="https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/13G4bWV7kL3hiSjkWA5q1_qWCiRJKCuxb/edit#gid=1089782244">IATP 2021 Dataset</a>, source: <a href="https://api.mziq.com/mzfilemanager/v2/d/043a77e1-0127-4502-bc5b-21427b991b22/89617df2-cf31-77d8-d102-c2dee83873fb?origin=1">JBS (2022) Institutional Presentation including 4Q21 and 2021 Results</a>.</p> <p>5. “<a href="https://www.cdp.net/en/formatted_responses/responses?campaign_id=74241094&amp;discloser_id=892510&amp;locale=en&amp;organization_name=JBS+S.A&amp;organization_number=9730&amp;program=Investor&amp;project_year=2021&amp;redirect=https%3A%2F%2Fcdp.credit360.com%2Fsurveys%2F2021%2Fdbbr64mv%2F146515&amp;survey_id=73557641">JBS S.A - Climate Change 2021</a>,” The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), 2021.</p> <p>6.  Feedback, “Green Gas Without the Hot Air: Defining the True Role of Biogas in a Net Zero Future” (London: Feedback, 2020), <a href="https://feedbackglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Feedback-2020-Green-Gas-Without-the-Hot-Air-report.pdf">https://feedbackglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Feedback-2020-Green-Gas-Without-the-Hot-Air-report.pdf</a>.</p> <hr /><p><strong>Download a <a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/JBS%20media%20briefing%2021april22.pdf">PDF of the media brief</a>. </strong></p> <hr /><p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-upload field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Upload</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/JBS%20media%20briefing%2021april22.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=1374557" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">JBS media briefing 21april22.pdf</a></span><span class="file-size">1.31 MB</span></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Primary category</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/industrialized-meat" hreflang="en">Industrial Livestock</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Teaser image</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/media/11496" hreflang="en">Cattle and climate change</a></div> </div> </div> Thu, 21 Apr 2022 15:31:00 +0000 cecelia heffron 44772 at https://www.iatp.org Investors and supermarkets urged to drop JBS after shock rise in its climate emissions https://www.iatp.org/documents/investors-and-supermarkets-urged-drop-jbs-after-shock-rise-its-climate-emissions <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss field-primary-category-climate-change has-field-primary-category no-field-teaser-image title-not-empty ds-1col clearfix"> <div class="field field--name-field-author-text field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author (free form)</div> <div class="field--item"><p>Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy</p> <p>DeSmog</p> <p>Feedback</p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p>Press Release</p> <p>For Immediate Release<br /> Date: 21 April 2022</p> <h1><strong>Investors and supermarkets urged to drop JBS after shock rise in its climate emissions</strong></h1> <p>The world’s largest meat company, JBS, has increased its greenhouse gas emissions by a staggering 51% over the last five years and is now responsible for greater emissions than Italy’s annual climate footprint, new research finds.</p> <p>A coalition of campaign groups – including the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), Feedback and Mighty Earth – have expressed outrage at JBS’s supersized climate emissions, which place it at odds with its own corporate emissions reduction strategy just one year on from its ‘Net Zero by 2040’ pledge.</p> <p> Ahead of the company’s annual general meeting (AGM) in São Paulo tomorrow [22 April], the coalition is urging JBS’s investors and customers to drop the Brazil-based company. JBS’s top investors include Brazilian development bank BNDES, asset manager BlackRock, and Barclays and Santander banks. Its major customers in the retail sector include supermarket giants Carrefour, Costco,Tesco, Walmart and Ahold Delhaize. In the fast food sector, its customers include McDonald’s, Burger King and KFC.</p> <p>Using a UN-approved methodology, new research contained in a media brief by IATP, Feedback and investigative website DeSmog, found that JBS – which processed 26.8 million cattle, 46.7 million pigs and 4.9 billion chickens last year – increased its annual GHG emissions by 51% in five years from 280 million metric tonnes (mmts) in 2016 to around 421.6 mmts in 2021. This is more than the annual climate footprint of Italy or Spain and close to that of France (at 443 mmt) and the UK (at 453 mmt). It is approximately equivalent to fossil fuel giant Total’s 2020 emissions.</p> <p>The latest UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report has singled out livestock-related methane emissions, recommending they be slashed by a third by 2030 in order to hold global temperature rise to 1.5ºC. Instead, JBS’s emissions are set to jump even higher as it pursues aggressive expansion plans and seeks access to increased financing through a possible listing on an American stock exchange.</p> <p>“It’s mind blowing that JBS can continue to make climate claims to investors, even as the company massively increases its emissions,” said Shefali Sharma, Europe director of the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, which estimated in 2018 that JBS’s emissions were roughly half that of oil majors such as BP, Shell or ExxonMobil. “Our updated emissions estimates show clearly the harm being done by empty net-zero announcements. Investors gathering at today's AGM shouldn't be fooled by this greenwash. We need public, independent and accountable systems for monitoring these companies’ emissions. Governments need to step up and regulate these companies and support a transition out of this destructive model of industrial livestock production.”</p> <p>With operations in 20 countries ranging from Brazil to the US and record annual revenues of $76 billion, JBS last year promised to achieve net zero emissions by 2040. However, its net-zero plans provide little detail and have been panned by campaigners for omitting so-called ‘Scope 3’ emissions – which represent up to 97% of JBS’s contribution to climate change. Scope 3 emissions encompass pollution from its entire supply chain: potent greenhouse gases such as methane emitted from livestock, as well as emissions from deforestation, forest fires, and land conversion, plus the production of animal feed, enteric fermentation, and the use of agrochemicals.</p> <p>Carina Millstone, Executive Director of campaign group Feedback, said: “It's high time that banks and investors, many of whom have adopted their own 'net-zero’ targets and committed to end deforestation, ceased to bankroll climate chaos and the destruction of nature, by pulling the plug on their financial backing to toxic JBS and its subsidiaries.”</p> <p>Hazel Healy, UK Editor of climate investigative news outlet DeSmog, said: “JBS is using the same greenwashing tactics we’ve seen employed by oil and gas majors for decades. It presents itself as a company with genuine climate ambition but fails to disclose its full emissions so they can be compared with the company’s public communications. And as this research shows, JBS’s emissions are increasing substantially, not decreasing.”</p> <p>Launched alongside IATP’s JBS emissions revelations, a new report about the company by Mighty Earth – called The Boys From Brazil – highlights how JBS used corruption and massive government subsidies to finance the enormous international growth that put it into the climate super-polluter category in which it finds itself today. The report highlights that JBS was responsible for an estimated 1.5 million hectares of deforestation in its indirect supply chains in Brazil since 2008 and warns that scandal-hit JBS has repeatedly broken its promises to stamp out deforestation in the Amazon or conserve other key ecosystems such as the Cerrado and the Pantanal. It also chronicles a long history of links to elite bribery, price-fixing, invasion of Indigenous lands, worker exploitation, modern-day slavery, and environmental pollution.</p> <p>“JBS is one of the world’s worst climate offenders and that’s why we’re urging its key customers like giant supermarkets Carrefour, Costco and Tesco to drop JBS urgently,” said Alex Wijeratna, Campaign Director at Mighty Earth. “No company that buys meat from JBS can claim to be serious about climate change. JBS could easily implement systems that would end its links to deforestation and radically reduce its methane pollution. The fact that a single meat company can cause more pollution than an entire G7 member country should be a wake up call that we need a massive scale up of plant-based and cultivated protein, and we need it now.”</p> <p>Contact:<br /> Shefali Sharma, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), <a href="mailto:ssharma@iatp.org">ssharma@iatp.org</a>,Tel: +49 177 146 9613; Ben Lilliston, IATP in the US, Tel: +1 612 870-0453 x3416<br /> Natasha Hurley, Feedback, <a href="mailto:natasha@feedbackglobal.org">natasha@feedbackglobal.org</a>, Tel: +44 7585 663648<br /> Rich Collett-White, DeSmog, <a href="mailto:rich@desmog.com">rich@desmog.com</a>, Tel: +44 7805 887695<br /> Alex Wijeratna, Mighty Earth, <a href="mailto:awijeratna@mightyearth.org">awijeratna@mightyearth.org</a>, Tel: +44 7725 406 730</p> <p>Notes for editors:<br /> 1. The full DeSmog, IATP and Feedback joint media briefing on JBS’s emissions and climate greenwash can be found here: <a href="https://feedbackglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/JBS-media-briefing-draft-FINAL_19april22.pdf">https://feedbackglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/JBS-media-briefing-draft-FINAL_19april22.pdf</a> <a href="https://www.iatp.org/media-brief-jbs-increases-emissions-51-percent">https://www.iatp.org/media-brief-jbs-increases-emissions-51-percent</a><br /> 2. Mighty Earth’s new report on JBS titled The Boys From Brazil can be found here: <a href="https://www.mightyearth.org/wp-content/uploads/JBS-report-V10-FINAL.pdf">https://www.mightyearth.org/wp-content/uploads/JBS-report-V10-FINAL.pdf</a></p> <p>-ends</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Primary category</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/issues/climate-change" hreflang="en">Climate Change</a></div> </div> </div> Wed, 20 Apr 2022 21:22:05 +0000 Ben Lilliston 44773 at https://www.iatp.org The great climate greenwash: Global meat giant JBS’ emissions leap by 51% in five years https://www.iatp.org/jbs-emissions-rising-despite-net-zero-pledge <span>The great climate greenwash: Global meat giant JBS’ emissions leap by 51% in five years</span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34897" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cecelia heffron</span></span> <span>Wed, 04/20/2022 - 16:17</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p paraeid="{55e696b8-1ea3-4e9c-87b9-994f7c54e407}{203}" paraid="1503486000">IATP’s <a href="https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/13G4bWV7kL3hiSjkWA5q1_qWCiRJKCuxb/edit#gid=1089782244" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">new emissions estimates</a> for JBS — the world’s largest meat processor — find that the Brazil-based company increased its emissions by 51% in five years.</p></div> Wed, 20 Apr 2022 21:17:52 +0000 cecelia heffron 44769 at https://www.iatp.org Q&A: The SEC’s proposed rule on the disclosure of climate-related financial risk  https://www.iatp.org/blog/202204/qa-secs-proposed-rule-disclosure-climate-related-financial-risk <span>Q&amp;A: The SEC’s proposed rule on the disclosure of climate-related financial risk </span> <span><span lang="" about="/user/34897" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">cecelia heffron</span></span> <span>Mon, 04/18/2022 - 16:16</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span><span><span>The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) released a proposed rule on mandatory corporate disclosure of climate-related financial risks in March 2022. The proposed rule will require all publicly traded companies, including major food and agriculture corporations, to disclose their annual climate emissions and other information relevant to investors. The SEC is accepting public comments on the proposed rules <a href="https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2022-82">through June 17, 2022</a>. IATP’s Senior Policy Analyst Dr.</span></span></span></span></span></p></div> Mon, 18 Apr 2022 21:16:52 +0000 cecelia heffron 44770 at https://www.iatp.org Millions in federal conservation program money in the Midwest go toward large farms, practices that make the environment worse https://www.iatp.org/documents/millions-federal-conservation-program-money-midwest-go-toward-large-farms-practices-make <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss field-primary-category-agriculture has-field-primary-category no-field-teaser-image title-not-empty ds-1col clearfix"> <h3 > New report reveals EQIP funds large agricultural operations for practices that keep emissions high, drain wetlands, close out small, sustainable farms from financial assistance </h3> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/about/staff/iatp" hreflang="en">IATP</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><span><span><span><span><span>A new report from the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (</span></span><a href="https://www.iatp.org/"><span><span><span><span><span>IATP</span></span></span></span></span></a><span><span>) finds that in 2020, in the 12 Midwest states, over $56 million in federal conservation dollars were spent on industrial agricultural practices. The report analyzes the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the practices it helps farmers pay for, identifying EQIP-supported 10 specific practices that prop up high-emission or otherwise environmentally detrimental models of agriculture. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>The report, </span></span><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/2022_04_Payments_for_Pollution_IATP.pdf"><em><span><span>Payments</span></span></em><span><span> <em>for pollution: How federal conservation programs can better benefit farmers and the environment</em></span></span></a><span><span>, identifies 10 “industrial” practices paid for by EQIP. While IATP underscored the importance of EQIP in targeted on-farm conservation in a previous report, </span></span><a href="https://www.iatp.org/documents/closed-out-how-us-farmers-are-denied-access-conservation-programs"><em><span><span>Closed Out</span></span></em></a><em><span><span>, </span></span></em><span><span>the program is not perfect. While a majority of EQIP practices help farmers pay for proven agroecological practices, there is a share that goes toward harmful ones. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>In some cases, EQIP-funded practices concentrate liquid animal manure in ways that emit high amounts of methane and nitrous oxide, and in other cases, drain water from fields into the Midwest’s already overburdened creeks and rivers, often carrying nitrates with it. The full list of industrial practices includes underground outlet, waste facility cover, waste storage facility, subsurface drain, closure of waste impoundment, manure transfer, animal mortality facility, emergency animal mortality management, roof runoff management and pumping plant for water control. Many of these industrial practices are expensive. In some states, the average cost of a waste storage facility is over $100,000.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>“The more EQIP money that goes toward harmful, industrial practices, the less that goes toward good conservation,” says IATP </span></span><span><span>Program Associate for Climate and Rural Communities Michael Happ, author of the report. “When fewer than one-third of EQIP applicants are awarded contracts nationwide, we need to reexamine what we are spending our money on and whether it deserves the label of ‘environmental.’” </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>The amount each Midwest state spends on industrial practices through EQIP varies. Illinois and Minnesota spent 37.3% and 30.8% of their 2020 EQIP funds on industrial practices, respectively, whereas North Dakota spent only 2.1%. </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>The report lays out policy solutions, including removing industrial practices from EQIP, prioritizing sustainable practices and making the payment schedule work better for low-capital farmers. It also highlights how farmers and others can get involved in their state technical advisory committees to push for more equitable conservation implementation.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span>“EQIP helps pay for crucial practices like erosion controls, better pasture management for livestock and practices that keep runoff out of our waterways,” says Happ. “We need to double down on these beneficial practices and target them toward farmers who need help the most. We can’t waste precious resources on expensive structures that clean up messes that shouldn’t have been made in the first place.” </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/PRESS%20RELEASE_IATP_Payments%20for%20Pollution_April%202022.pdf"><strong><span><span><span><span><span>Download a PDF of the press release.</span></span></span></span></span></strong></a></p> <p> </p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Primary category</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/agriculture2" hreflang="en">Agriculture</a></div> </div> </div> Thu, 14 Apr 2022 17:56:34 +0000 cecelia heffron 44766 at https://www.iatp.org Payments for Pollution: How federal conservation programs can better benefit farmers and the environment https://www.iatp.org/documents/payments-pollution-how-federal-conservation-programs-can-better-benefit-farmers-and <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss field-primary-category-agriculture has-field-primary-category has-field-teaser-image title-not-empty ds-1col clearfix"> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field--item"><a href="/about/staff/michael-happ" hreflang="en">Michael Happ</a></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field--item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/styles/feat/public/2022-04/2022_04_EQIP_report-cover_image_0.jpg?itok=fet9r_IK" width="950" height="590" alt="Payments for Pollution EQIP cover" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-responsive" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h2 class="Heading-2">Summary</h2> <p class="Normal">In IATP’s 2021 report <a href="https://www.iatp.org/documents/closed-out-how-us-farmers-are-denied-access-conservation-programs"><span class="in-paragraph-italics"><em>Closed out: How U.S. farmers are denied access to conservation program</em>s</span></a>, we showed that for years, farmers have been turned away from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) two flagship conservation payment programs, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP). Between 2010 and 2020, only 42% of CSP applicants and 31% of EQIP applicants were awarded contracts.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-001-backlink">1</span></span></sup></p> <p class="Normal">This new report examines how EQIP in particular pays for agricultural practices that are not environmentally beneficial or in some cases actively make the environment worse. Specifically, this report examines the implementation of the program in the 12 states most frequently classified as “The Midwest:” Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota.</p> <p class="Normal">We look at 2020 USDA data by state, analyzing number of contracts awarded, dollar amounts awarded and which practices are most popular. We also incorporate data gathered by others examining whether or not EQIP serves farmers of color well.</p> <p class="Normal">This report finds that current resources are being misdirected to large, polluting operations while thousands of farmers are being turned away from contracts that could help them pay for conservation improvements and help their bottom lines. Reforms are needed to ensure that EQIP funds only go toward truly environmentally beneficial practices. USDA can better allocate finite resources to those who need it most, including those who integrate more climate friendly, agroecological practices and systems.</p> <h2 class="Heading-2">Introduction</h2> <p class="Normal">Climate change continues to be a major disruptor of food and farm systems across the globe. The recent <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg2/"><span class="in-paragraph-underlining">report</span></a> by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underscored the urgent need for more resilient systems for farmers and eaters to withstand the shocks of an increasingly unpredictable climate.<sup><span class="CharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-002-backlink">2</span></span></sup> Unfortunately, the current agricultural marketplace does not reward farmers for resilience. Instead, it pressures farmers to buy into a system of high-cost, industrial farming methods that leave the water and air worse off while keeping many farmers strapped for cash year to year.</p> <p class="Normal">This is where EQIP comes in. As <em><span class="CharOverride-2">Closed Out</span></em> detailed, since EQIP’s inception in the 1996 Farm Bill, it has helped farmers pay for farming methods that can increase both economic and environmental resilience in the face of climate change — helping reimburse farmers for practices focused on increased soil health, cover crops, pasture management, buffers between waterways and tilled farmland, and many other tried-and-true methods of reducing risk in farming. At the same time that EQIP pays farmers to improve their land and mitigate climate risks, it is also subsidizing many highly polluting farms that are actively making the climate crisis worse.</p> <h2 class="Heading-2">What’s in an EQIP Factory Farm Practice?</h2> <p class="Normal">As IATP’s research in <em>E</em><span class="in-paragraph-italics"><em>missions Impossible</em> </span>explained, over 90% of the emissions from corporate meat and dairy companies come from the livestock supply chain.<sup><span class="endnote-reference CharOverride-3"><span id="endnote-003-backlink">3</span></span></sup> These are the emissions that come from raising livestock and growing livestock feed. Some of the most intensive emitting nodes of the livestock supply chain are large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), facilities that are commonly referred to as “factory farms.” These CAFOs keep livestock and poultry in confined quarters with little to no access to pasture or even the outdoors and require industrial solutions to issues like manure management.</p> <p class="Normal">Some of these industrial solutions, like manure lagoons, are disasters waiting to happen. Not only do they emit high amounts of methane and nitrous oxide,<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-004-backlink">4</span></span></sup> but they are also highly vulnerable to natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods, which can put neighbors and local water at risk.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-005-backlink">5</span></span></sup> CAFOs decouple grazing animals from grasslands, which can be an efficient and ecological alternative to intensive feedlot operations. The less farmers rely on natural manure spreading via pastured livestock means farmers apply more synthetic fertilizers, which emit even more nitrous oxide.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-006-backlink">6</span></span></sup> For years, the Environmental Working Group tracked EQIP payments, practices and effects on environmental factors like water quality.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-007-backlink">7</span></span></sup> Through this report, we hope to build on the work that has already been done by others and show the combined climate and economic risks of misallocated EQIP funds.</p> <p class="Normal">Of the over 300 practices that EQIP supports through cost-share payments, we have identified 10 that we label as “industrial” or “factory-farm friendly.” These practices include using include waste storage facilities that prop up CAFOs and building underground outlets that aid in the conversion of natural systems such as wetlands into intensive crop production. In a sense, while these practices might improve environmental outcomes, they are cleaning up the messes created by industrial farming using federal money that would be better used on truly agroecological practices.</p> <p class="Normal">At a large enough scale, any practice can help prop up big factory farms, but there are a handful of EQIP practices that we consider the worst offenders. After reviewing all EQIP practices that were funded in 2020 in Midwest states, we narrowed the list to practices that perpetuate unnatural systems. This included practices that disrupt the natural flow of water and many practices that incentivize farmers to keep livestock in CAFOs and away from pastures. The list we compiled is by no means comprehensive. For the purposes of this paper, the 10 industrial practices are listed below.</p> <h3 class="Heading-2-states ParaOverride-1">Ten of the worst industrial practices included in EQIP</h3> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd1671248&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Underground Outlet</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">Essentially, underground outlets are the pipes and tubes that transport surface water from fields to creeks, streams or other bodies of water. This practice drains wetlands and increases the volume of water in streams and rivers, leading to more erosion and the carrying of excess nutrients to places like the Gulf of Mexico. The practice is often used in fields that have persistent standing water issues.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcs143_025700&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Subsurface Drain</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">Often paired with underground outlets, this practice is how surface water in fields is carried away to nearby ditches and streams. These are commonly referred to as drainage tiles.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=stelprdb1254945&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Waste Storage Facility</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">Waste storage facilities are structures built to contain large amounts of livestock manure. To keep the manure contained, these facilities often have large embankments and are intended to prevent seepage into soil and groundwater.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd340709&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Waste Facility Cover</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">This practice puts a hard surface over storage facilities for animal manure. The intent is to prevent flooding or other ways of waste escape.</p> <h4 class="Normal"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1253367.pdf">Closure of Waste Impoundment</a></h4> <p class="Normal">Once a waste storage facility is no longer needed, this practice helps pay for the decommissioning of the facility, which can include the pumping out of any and all liquid manure, removing concrete/embankments or even converting it to a freshwater pond.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd1822451&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Manure Transfer</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">This practice helps pay for pipes or other “conduits” to transfer liquefied animal manure to a waste storage facility.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd340263&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Animal Mortality Facility</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">On farms where livestock die with frequency, this practice helps pay for disposal facilities to keep the livestock carcasses from contaminating soil or water. The facility can be in the form of a concrete bunker or other bermed structure.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd340743&amp;ext=pdf">E<span class="H3-underline">mergency Animal Mortality Management</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">In case of “catastrophic events” like the 2020 Iowa derecho, hurricanes or other sudden events that cause mass livestock death, this practice helps pay for the disposal of animal carcasses. While farms of all sizes can take advantage of this practice, it still largely benefits large factory farms.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd1822444&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Roof Runoff Management</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">This practice helps pay for gutters and other diversions of water runoff from roofs to ensure the water does not arrive in high volumes in contaminated areas. The practice decreases opportunities for water contaminated with pathogens, fertilizers, pesticides, medications or excess nutrients to enter surface waterways and groundwater. While farmers of all sizes and models might use this practice, and fewer federal funds went to it in 2020 than other practices on this list, it still is a practice directed toward operations with large buildings and associated confinements and feedlots.</p> <h4 class="Heading-4"><a href="https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/PA_NRCSConsumption/download?cid=nrcseprd1671037&amp;ext=pdf"><span class="H3-underline">Pumping Plant for Water Control</span></a></h4> <p class="Normal">This practice pays for the construction of a pumping plant that can have many uses, including the transport of liquid manure, the draining of surface water or the creation of drinking water reservoirs for livestock. We include this practice in the list of industrial practices because of its use for liquid manure transfer, an issue that mostly large-scale factory farms face.</p> <p class="Normal ParaOverride-2">The above EQIP practice descriptions are summarized from the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS’s) <span class="in-paragraph-italics">Conservation Practices</span> page.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-008-backlink">8</span></span></sup></p> <p class="Normal"><img alt="EQIP Total obligated funds" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a96ec41c-9d40-4859-860d-4cd0da9f03eb" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/EQIP%20total%20obligated%20funds_-01.jpg" width="75%" /></p> <p class="Normal">Source: National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition,<sup><span id="endnote-009-backlink">9</span></sup> Natural Resources Conservation Service<sup><span id="endnote-010-backlink">10</span></sup></p> <h2 class="Heading-2">How much EQIP money goes to industrial practices?</h2> <p class="Normal">Before the 2002 Farm Bill, CAFOs were specifically excluded from EQIP funding.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-011-backlink">11</span></span></sup> EQIP was started with the express intent of helping farmers put in place sound conservation on their land, but since the inclusion of CAFO funding in EQIP, more and more resources have gone toward industrial practices. Below is a chart from the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition showing the growth in total obligated funds to EQIP since 2009.</p> <p class="Normal">By law, 50% of EQIP funds are earmarked for livestock-specific practices. While some of that money does go toward practices like rotational grazing and water conservation-related practices, an inordinate amount goes toward industrial practices.</p> <p class="Normal">Conservationists and state technical advisory committees (STACs) in each state are empowered to decide which kinds of practices to prioritize in their state. While some states may focus solely on program implementation, others might approach their work with a grazing focus, forestry, row crops, or other mode of agriculture. States with large amounts of grazing might focus more on practices that improve rangeland and pastureland health, whereas states with large amounts of CAFOs might focus on practices friendlier to such operations. If a state does not meet the 50% livestock set-aside, that funding can be redirected to other states that can.</p> <h3 class="Normal _idGenParaOverride-1">Here’s how much each Midwest state spent on the 10 practices we categorize as “industrial” in 2020.</h3> <table class="Table-Style-1" id="table001"><colgroup><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-1" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /></colgroup><tbody><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-3"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1 _idGenCellOverride-1" colspan="7"> <h3 class="Table-heading--state">2020 Spending on Practice</h3> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-4"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Practice</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Illinois</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-3"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Indiana</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-3"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Iowa</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Kansas</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-3"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Michigan</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-3"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Minnesota</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Underground Outlet</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,477,227</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$651,421</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,731,446</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-6"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$866,096</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$67,430</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$783,546</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Waste Facility Cover</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,410,063</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,804,398</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,097,488</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$380,200</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,024,553</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Waste Storage Facility </span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,094,481</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,586,552</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,659,876</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$994,789</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,472,423</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,472,423</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Subsurface Drain</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$280,099</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$280,924</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$195,118</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$15,437</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$16,287</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$281,771</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Closure of Waste Impoundment</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$223,391</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$110,482</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$11,595</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$570,307</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$96,231</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Manure Transfer</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$188,860</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$211,738</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$52,781</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$291,058</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$282,574</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$222,867</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-3"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Animal Mortality Facility</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$161,576</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$457,792</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$151,894</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$270,574</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Emergency Animal Mortality Management</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$146,673</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,199</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$89,718</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,248</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$196,324</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Roof Runoff Management</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$79,401</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$125,281</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$38,091</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$58,138</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$24,436</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Pumping Plant for Water Control </span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$30,642</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$20,728</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$52,629</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$419,903</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$31,771</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$111,682</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-9"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2020 total spent on EQIP industrial practices</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$6,092,413</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$5,250,515</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$6,928,742</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$3,542,038</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$4,080,517</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$8,484,407</span></strong></p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2020 total spent on EQIP</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$16,346,974</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$25,476,807</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$28,784,753</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$34,920,524</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$16,685,176</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$27,543,385</span></strong></p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-9"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-4"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2020 Percentage of total EQIP funds spent on industrial practices</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">37.3%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">20.6%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">24.1%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-7"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">10.1%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-8"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">24.5%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">30.8%</span></strong></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><table class="Table-Style-1" id="table002"><colgroup><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-1" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-10" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-11" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /></colgroup><tbody><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-3"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1 _idGenCellOverride-1" colspan="7"> <h3 class="Table-heading--state">2020 Spending on Practice</h3> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-4"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Practice</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-3"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Missouri</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Nebraska</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">North Dakota</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Ohio</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">South Dakota</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-2"> <h4 class="Table-heading">Wisconsin</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Underground Outlet</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,487,710</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$878,405</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$71,946</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$56,689</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$224,977</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-12"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Waste Facility Cover</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,760,845</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$151,480</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,603,966</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$514,480</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,342,055</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Waste Storage Facility </span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$612,041</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$297,120</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$66,605</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,027,557</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,049,885</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,100,627</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Subsurface Drain</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$17,168</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$93,010</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$268,596</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Closure of Waste Impoundment</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$685,773</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$58,503</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$116,039</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,060,969</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Manure Transfer</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$796,500</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$27,034</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$12,416</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$19,200</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,840</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$428,190</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-3"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Animal Mortality Facility</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$40,671</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$45,154</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$139,055</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$225,082</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Emergency Animal Mortality Management</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$506</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$12,341</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$89,994</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Roof Runoff Management</span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$24,436</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$0</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$160,741</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$6,994</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$27,004</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><span class="CharOverride-4">Pumping Plant for Water Control </span></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$202,943</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$954,728</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$376,221</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$68,406</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$289,102</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$187,106</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-9"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2020 total spent on EQIP industrial practices</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$5,604,157</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$2,404,047</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$455,242</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$5,089,980</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$2,265,078</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">$5,864,606</span></strong></p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2020 total spent on EQIP</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">$32,395,648</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">$24,765,542</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">$21,204,203</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">$22,664,568</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">$17,545,320</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">$32,943,555</span></strong></p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-9"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-5"> <p class="Table-text"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2020 Percentage of total EQIP funds spent on industrial practices</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-9"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">17.3%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">9.7%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">2.1%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">22.5%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">12.9%</span></strong></p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-1"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">17.8%</span></strong></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="Photo-credit">Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-012-backlink">12</span></span></sup></p> <h2 class="Heading-2">Do any states have positive, agroecological models?</h2> <p class="Normal">As the data above shows, some states commit many more resources to harmful practices than others. One state that stands out as a positive model is North Dakota, where less than $500,000 across the whole state is spent on industrial EQIP practices. North Dakota is a holdout state regarding factory farms: It continues to have strict protections for family farms and legal definitions of what is considered a farm.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-013-backlink">13</span> </span></sup></p> <p class="Normal">While states such as Kansas, Missouri and Wisconsin all have high EQIP expenditures, how that money is spent can differ widely from state to state. Kansas in particular spends a substantial amount of money on more agroecological practices, whereas Wisconsin spends quite a bit on industrial practices, with Missouri somewhere in between. Members of the public are encouraged to join their NRCS state technical advisory committees (STACs) to help shape implementation of Farm Bill conservation programs such as EQIP. In many cases, the differing state priorities can be traced to decisions made by STACs.</p> <p class="Normal">Below is a look at the top 5 EQIP practices by dollar amount in 2020, as well as the number of contracts awarded for that practice in the state. In general, the more contracts awarded, the more farmers served by the program.</p> <p class="Normal">Practices like waste facility cover and waste storage facility consistently rank in the top five practices while serving at most a few dozen farmers. In fact, while it may appear that the number of contracts would reflect the number of farmers served by a practice, farmers can hold multiple EQIP contracts at once. While there is little public data to show how common holding multiple contracts is, we refrain from equating number of contracts with number of farmers served.</p> <h2 class="Heading-2 ParaOverride-5">Top Five EQIP Practices in the Midwest by State, 2020 (in $ spent)</h2> <table class="Table-Style-1 TableOverride-1" id="table003"><colgroup><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-13" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-14" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-15" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-16" /></colgroup><thead><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-17"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-10"> <h3 class="Table-heading">Practice</h3> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-10" style="width: 133px;"> <h3 class="Table-heading">$ Spent</h3> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-10" style="width: 157px;"> <h3 class="Table-heading">Number of Contracts</h3> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-10" style="width: 182px;"> <h3 class="Table-heading">Average Contract Size</h3> </td> </tr></thead><tbody><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state"><strong>Illinois</strong></h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Underground Outlet</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,477,227</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">391</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$6,335.62</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-9"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Water &amp;<br /> Sediment Control Basin</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,016,172</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">410</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,917.49</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,410,063</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">39</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$36,155.46</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Heavy Use Area Protection</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,379,209</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">120</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$11,493.41</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,094,481</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">10</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$109,448.10</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Indiana</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,441,614</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">995</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,468.96</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Nutrient Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,172,547</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">336</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$9,442.10</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Brush Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,060,971</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">388</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,311.78</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,804,398</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">57</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$31,656.11</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,586,552</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">39</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$40,680,82</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Iowa</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$6,328,447</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1116</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,670.65</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,659,876</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">42</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$63,330.38</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,097,488</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">22</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$95,340.36</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Grade Stabilization Structure</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,809,357</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">99</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$18,276.33</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Underground Outlet</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,731,446</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">239</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$7,244.54</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Kansas</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Terrace</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,992,147</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">594</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$10,087.79</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,570,475</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">597</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,980.70</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Conservation Crop Rotation</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,049,493</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">138</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$14,851.40</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Prescribed Grazing</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,039,888</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">848</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,405.53</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Obstruction Removal</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,926,430</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">61</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$31,580.82</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Michigan</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,399,554</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">420</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$8,094.18</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,808,356</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">40</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$45,208.90</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,513,945</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">24</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$63,081.04</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Nutrient Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,012,562</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">114</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$8,882.12</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Pest Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$811,316</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">89</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$9,115.91</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Minnesota</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Nutrient Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,193,336</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">191</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$21,954.64</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,472,423</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">43</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$80,754.02</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,024,553</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">38</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$79,593.50</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,479,935</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">343</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$7,230.13</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Pest Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,076,385</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">117</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$17,746.88</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Missouri</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,296,458</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1116</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,745.93</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Wildlife Habitat Planting</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,899,944</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">442</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$8,823.40</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Fence</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,573,371</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">524</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,911.01</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,760,845</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">31</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$56,801.45</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Terrace</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,672,075</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">151</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$11,073.34</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Nebraska</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,301,425</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">509</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,521.46</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Brush Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,816,145</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">439</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,137.00</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Conservation Crop Rotation</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,696,044</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">221</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$7,674.41</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Terrace</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,637,850</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">170</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$9,634.41</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Fence</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,553,610</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">329</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,722.22</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">North Dakota</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Nutrient Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,844,719</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">180</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$21,359.55</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,332,803</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">263</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$12,672.25</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-19"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Wildlife Wetland Habitat Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,261,219</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">548</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,126.31</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Pipeline</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,769,408</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">170</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$10,408.28</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Fence</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,483,228</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">291</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,097.00</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Ohio</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Nutrient Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,541,257</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">305</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$11,610.68</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,206,860</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">637</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,034.32</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,603,860</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">95</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$27,409.05</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Brush Management</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,079,532</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1063</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,956.29</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,027,557</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">69</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$29,384.88</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">South Dakota</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Pipeline</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$3,350,597</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">386</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$8,680.30</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Fence</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,385,851</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">436</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$5,472.14</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Trough or Tank</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,049,885</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">498</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,108.20</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,016,115</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">8</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$127,014.38</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,000,827</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">219</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$4,569.99</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-18"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" colspan="4"> <h4 class="Table-heading--state">Wisconsin</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-6"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Cover Crop</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$6,195,557</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">766</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$8,088.19</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Forest Slash Treatment</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,549,695</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">46</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$55,428.15</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Storage Facility</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$2,100,627</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">25</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$84,025.08</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-7"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Pond Sealing or Lining Concrete</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,782,850</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">15</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$118,856.67</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-8"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11"> <p class="Table-text">Waste Facility Cover</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 133px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$1,342,055</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 157px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">18</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-11" style="width: 182px;"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">$74,558.61</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-5"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-12 _idGenCellOverride-2" colspan="4"> <p class="Table-text">Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-014-backlink">14</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="Normal"> </p> <p class="Normal">In the above table, the differences in impact between industrial practices and more environmentally beneficial practices could not be clearer. Non-industrial practices serve more contracts and likely interface with more farmers with need for financial assistance. While many farmers are served by these non-industrial practices, there are undoubtedly many more who would like to access EQIP funding but are unable to receive it due to lack of funds.</p> <p class="Normal">Meanwhile, many industrial practices such as waste storage facility cost upward of $100,000 per contract while serving relatively few farmers. The more money that goes toward these practices means that fewer people can access EQIP. As we outlined in <span class="in-paragraph-italics">Closed Out</span>, over half of farmers nationwide who apply to EQIP are rejected from the program. We highlighted the need for more funding as a potential solution, but diverting money away from high dollar industrial contracts and into more environmentally beneficial ones can go a long way toward reaching more farmers.</p> <h2 class="Heading-2">Does EQIP Leave Out Farmers of Color?</h2> <p class="Normal">According to <a href="https://sustainableagriculture.net/blog/cover-crops-and-cafos-eqip-in-fy-2019-and-fy-2020/"><span class="Hyperlink_02">data</span></a> compiled by the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (NSAC), Midwest states awarded between 1-13% of their EQIP contracts to “socially disadvantaged producers,” the umbrella term used by USDA to describe farmers of color. In some cases, the low percentage of contracts awarded to farmers of color reflects a low total number of farmers of color in that state. However, there are states such as South Dakota where farmers of color are better represented in EQIP contracts, which in South Dakota’s case likely reflects the large number of farmers who identify as Native American in the state.</p> <p class="Normal">EQIP, similar to CSP, commits 5% of its funds to farmers of color. Despite this set-aside, only two Midwest states meet that 5% commitment — South Dakota and Michigan. Additionally, each state is free to do as much or as little outreach to fill the 5% as they want. Unfortunately, there is little public information on how states do so.</p> <p class="Normal">Low percentages of financial assistance to farmers of color also reflects larger issues — centuries of violence and discrimination. This includes the seizure of land from farmers of color, the rejection of financing<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-015-backlink">15</span></span></sup> and as in the case of Pembroke Township in Kankakee County, Illinois, tax systems that benefit large landholders at the expense of African Americans who have responsibly stewarded their land for over a century.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-016-backlink">16</span> </span></sup></p> <p class="Normal _idGenParaOverride-1">Below is 2020 data from the National Sustainable Agriculture showing statistics related to EQIP and farmers of color in the Midwest. The far left column describes the percentage of EQIP financial assistance that went to farmers of color, whereas the far right column describes the percentage of EQIP contracts that went to farmers of color.</p> <table class="Table-Style-1" id="table004"><colgroup><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-20" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-21" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-2" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-22" /><col class="_idGenTableRowColumn-23" /></colgroup><tbody><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-24"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-13"> <h4 class="Table-heading">State</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-13"> <h4 class="Table-heading">% of financial assistance to socially disadvantaged (SDA) producers (% of $)</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-13"> <h4 class="Table-heading">% of all principal producers that are NRCS SDA by race</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-13"> <h4 class="Table-heading">% of all principal producers that are NRCS SDA by ethnicity (i.e., Hispanic/Latino/Spanish)</h4> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-13"> <h4 class="Table-heading">% of all EQIP contracts that went to SDA producers</h4> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">South Dakota</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">13.58%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">2%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">13%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Michigan</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">6.70%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">4%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-26"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Missouri</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">3.55%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">4%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Wisconsin</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">3.49%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">3%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-26"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">North Dakota</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">2.64%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">5%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Minnesota</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">2.50%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">3%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-26"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Ohio</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">2.11%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">2%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Kansas</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1.37%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">2%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-26"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Nebraska</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0.70%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">3%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Iowa</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0.62%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-26"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Indiana</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0.60%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-25"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-14"> <p class="Table-text">Illinois</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0.30%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">0%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> <td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-15"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-3">1%</p> </td> </tr><tr class="Table-Style-1 _idGenTableRowColumn-27"><td class="Table-Style-1 CellOverride-16 _idGenCellOverride-2" colspan="5"> <p class="Table-text ParaOverride-2">Source: National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-017-backlink">17</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p class="Normal">As the above data shows, NRCS has a responsibility to make EQIP more accessible to farmers of color, especially those who using agroecological farming practices and have been shut out of funding for decades. Better outreach and funding for EQIP is only part of the solution, as we need a national overhaul of the food and farming system to right centuries of wrong. IATP supports providing more up-front payment options for farmers of color and low-capital farmers, including up to 100% practice cost. The fact that EQIP does not provide 100% cost-share and in most cases acts as a reimbursement program rather than a payment program drives many farmers of color away from EQIP.</p> <h2 class="Heading-2">Policy Solutions</h2> <p class="Normal">U.S. President Joe Biden and Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack often emphasize the need for agriculture, along with other sectors, to be a part of the solution to the climate crisis, including Secretary Vilsack’s notable address to the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in November 2021.<sup><span class="endnote-reference _idGenCharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-018-backlink">18</span></span></sup> While some work has been done to better ensure USDA programs address the climate crisis, reforms to EQIP could take these commitments to the next level.</p> <p class="Normal">States such as Kansas serve as a model by funding hundreds of projects directed at soil and water conservation, such as cover crops, conservation crop cover and prescribed grazing. These practices are what EQIP is intended for: helping farmers implement sound environmental practices. Contrast such payments to Minnesota, where just 43 farmers were given an average of $143,000 each to put in waste storage facilities, a practice that is almost solely used by large CAFOs.</p> <p class="Normal _idGenParaOverride-1">As it exists now, while many good conservation projects are funded by EQIP, the program widens many of the economic gaps between big and small farms, as well as between white farmers and farmers of color. In a world where market forces are already creating inequities, Congress and the U.S. Department of Agriculture should use their power to narrow those gaps. We need to both expand investments in conservation programs like EQIP to make them more accessible, but we also need to improve programs like EQIP to make them work better. Some policy changes that could help improve the program’s performance include:</p> <h4 class="Heading-4">Pay farmers for practices ahead of time, at up to 100% of cost.</h4> <ul><li class="Bulleted-list">Currently, EQIP is set up as a reimbursement program, with the expectation that farmers pay for the practices on their own, with USDA sending a reimbursement check later. Even with occasional 50% advance payments, this structure can serve as a roadblock for low-capital farmers to be involved in the program. The additional resources needed to pay for 100% cost-share could come from money otherwise used for industrial practices, as well as additional funding from Congress.</li> </ul><h4 class="Heading-4">Remove harmful industrial practices from EQIP funding eligibility and restore EQIP to its original intent.</h4> <ul><li class="Bulleted-list">This would require Congress to outline specific practices to remove from funding eligibility in the 2023 Farm Bill. However, state conservationists and STACs could take action earlier by deprioritizing some of these industrial practices.</li> </ul><h4 class="Heading-4">Improve outreach to farmers of color</h4> <ul><li class="Bulleted-list">While USDA has made some strides on outreach to farmers of color through successful programs like the High Tunnel System Initiative,<sup><span class="CharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-019-backlink">19</span></span></sup> more work needs to be done to show EQIP’s utility for farmers of color, especially since many states are not fulfilling their 5% set-asides for Socially Disadvantaged Producers.</li> </ul><h4 class="Heading-4">Prioritize sustainable grazing systems in livestock set asides.</h4> <ul><li class="Bulleted-list">While some states have done a good job prioritizing sustainable grazing systems, much more needs to be done to direct animal operations toward this model. Additional resources for grazing specialists in local USDA offices would help toward this goal, as laid out in the Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative.<sup><span class="CharOverride-1"><span id="endnote-020-backlink">20</span></span></sup> For some states with few livestock, it might make more sense to remove the 50% livestock requirement altogether.</li> </ul><h4 class="Heading-4">Ensure that USDA responsibly collects data on who is being served by federal programs.</h4> <ul><li class="Bulleted-list">As IATP highlighted in <span class="CharOverride-2">Closed Out</span>, current data collection on how USDA programs serve farmers of color is insufficient. While we know how many farmers of each race are being served by EQIP nationwide, NRCS does not break the data down by race at the state level, only by whether a farmer is considered “socially disadvantaged.” Because the needs of Native American farmers differ from the needs of Black farmers, Asian farmers and Hispanic farmers, better data could help target outreach and resources to where it is needed most. This data should be collected down to the county level.</li> </ul><p class="Normal">While these policy solutions are by no means the only reforms needed for EQIP to betting align the program toward economic and environmental justice for farmers, they are good first steps.</p> <p class="Normal">While federal policy changes can help farmers tremendously in accessing EQIP, state policy matters, too. This is shown by the example of North Dakota. Because it is much harder for factory farms to operate in North Dakota than it is in places like South Dakota, Iowa and Minnesota, there are fewer operations that request assistance in paying for industrial practices. When fewer EQIP dollars are going to factory farms, more money is available for the small and midsize operations that need it most. Federal and state policy can work in concert for sound farm policy or can lead to policy that literally poisons the local farm economy.</p> <h2 class="Heading-2">Conclusion</h2> <p class="Normal">In short, while EQIP has done much good across the Midwest, the program as it currently exists too often supports practices that go against the program’s original intent. In a time when farmers are lining up by the thousands to seek help with on-farm conservation, USDA and Congress need to seriously consider whether taxpayer dollars are wisely spent on industrial EQIP practices. As the costs of these industrial practices on the planet become clearer, it becomes less defensible to allow public funds to support them.</p> <p class="Normal">While the cost of climate inaction is high, the cost of climate antagonism is higher.</p> <p class="Normal"><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/2022_04_Payments_for_Pollution_IATP.pdf">Download the PDF</a> to view the acknowledgements, photo credits and the endnotes. </p> <p class="heading-3 ParaOverride-7"> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-upload field--type-file field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Upload</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field--item"><span class="file file--mime-application-pdf file--application-pdf icon-before"><span class="file-icon"><span class="icon glyphicon glyphicon-file text-primary" aria-hidden="true"></span></span><span class="file-link"><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/2022_04_Payments_for_Pollution_IATP.pdf" type="application/pdf; length=2320443" title="Open file in new window" target="_blank" data-toggle="tooltip" data-placement="bottom">2022_04_Payments_for_Pollution_IATP.pdf</a></span><span class="file-size">2.21 MB</span></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Primary category</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/agriculture2" hreflang="en">Agriculture</a></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-teaser-image field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Teaser image</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/media/11490" hreflang="en">Payments for Pollution EQIP cover</a></div> </div> </div> Thu, 14 Apr 2022 14:47:21 +0000 Colleen Borgendale 44763 at https://www.iatp.org Comments on the proposed trade pillar of an Indo-Pacific Economic Framework https://www.iatp.org/documents/comments-proposed-trade-pillar-indo-pacific-economic-framework <div class="node node--type-document node--view-mode-rss field-primary-category-trade has-field-primary-category no-field-teaser-image title-not-empty ds-1col clearfix"> <div class="field field--name-field-author-text field--type-text-long field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Author (free form)</div> <div class="field--item"><p>Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy and the National Family Farm Coalition</p> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p><em><span><span><span><span>To read the full letter to USTR</span></span></span></span><span><span><span><span><span><span> Katherine Tai submitted on April 11, 2022, please <a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/IATP%20NFFC%20on%20IPEF.pdf">download a PDF of the letter</a>. </span></span></span></span></span></span></em></p> <p><span><span><span>The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) and the National Family Farm Coalition (NFFC) appreciate this opportunity to comment on the “Fair and Resilient Trade Pillar” of the proposed Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF). IATP is a non-profit organization based in Minneapolis, Minnesota with offices in Washington, D.C. and Berlin, Germany. We work locally and globally at the intersection of policy and practice to ensure fair and sustainable food, farm and trade systems. The National Family Farm Coalition is an alliance of 30 grassroots farmer- and advocate-led groups representing the rights and interests of independent family farmers, ranchers and fishermen in Washington, D.C. since 1986. Our organizations are members of the multisectoral Citizens Trade Campaign, and we support the broader issues addressed in their comment. We especially urge you to open these talks to public participation and to conduct negotiations that are inclusive and transparent. In these supplementary comments, we focus particularly on issues of food security and agriculture. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>We urge you to set negotiating objectives for the IPEF that aim to establish the highest possible public health, food security, environmental and labor standards, and that promote human rights frameworks and sustainable and equitable development in the countries participating in the Framework. We recognize the progress made in the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Trade Agreement (USMCA) to afford greater protections for internationally recognized labor rights and hope that this agreement can build on that achievement. We also appreciate the new limits on Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) in USMCA. Any trade agreement entered into by the U.S. must not include ISDS. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>While we recognize the advances in USMCA on labor rights and ISDS, that agreement failed to establish adequate safeguards for environmental protection or any incentives to promote climate adaptation or mitigation. It also set new limits on governments’ ability to enact fair and sustainable farming systems, through its provisions that seek to streamline food safety and agricultural biotechnology oversight and regulation, among others. We oppose efforts to replicate these harmful provisions in the IPEF.</span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>We submit these comments during yet another crisis in food prices and supplies. This time, it was sparked by the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which has disrupted supplies of wheat and fertilizers and increased prices of these and related goods around the world. In 2008, the crisis resulted from the combination of speculation, drought and the abrupt increase in ethanol targets. Meanwhile the ongoing climate emergency is severely impacting the rural communities and food producers we represent in the United States, as well as the communities we work with hand in hand abroad. It is imperative to develop new approaches to trade policy that help to increase resiliency, reduce volatility in agricultural supplies and prices, and promote investment in local, diversified food systems. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>We appreciate the Biden-Harris administration’s intention to reframe trade policy so it is sustainable and fair. The United States is well overdue for turning a new page on food and agriculture trade policy that truly shifts the balances of power away from corporate actors, who too often hold near monopsony control over agriculture markets, food workers and family-scale producers. Furthermore, we believe in the context of the massive upheaval in highly concentrated food supply-chains caused by COVID-19 and the disproportionate impacts of increased food insecurity among communities of color in the United States, it is essential that the Biden-Harris administration advance trade policy that specifically supports food access as a human right, in the United States and abroad. Finally, we must learn from the mistakes of the past — we oppose any efforts to link this initiative to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). Instead, we urge you to engage with trading partners to examine the reasons behind the current supply chain crisis and those that will undoubtedly occur in the future and to consider new solutions. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><strong><span>Develop new approaches to reduce volatility in prices and supplies. </span></strong><span>To advance fair and resilient agricultural production, IPEF must support the growing movement for fair prices and supply management of agricultural production that helps to reduce overproduction, supports farmer incomes, stabilizes price volatility for consumers and enhances the resilience of rural economies. Discussions could start with consideration of the experiences with food reserves historically in the United States, and more recently in India, Indonesia and other countries that have been indicated as potential parties to the IPEF. Those talks must include farmers and consumers’ organizations in the countries involved. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>The Canadian experience with dairy supply management offers important lessons on setting prices and estimating supplies in ways that increase stability, enhance rural livelihoods and lowers environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions. In the United States, the National Family Farm Coalition has developed the Milk from Family Dairies Act, a proposal endorsed by more than 90 organizations that would stabilize supplies at fair prices.<a href="#_ftn1"><span><span>[1]</span></span></a> </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span>Supply management relies on estimates of the appropriate volume of production to meet national demand, which will only work with accompanying trade policies to manage imports. There will certainly be a need for exports, especially to meet the needs of less developed countries that are reliant on those supplies, but an imperative to export should not drive agricultural trade policy. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><strong><span>Support a transition to agroecological production. </span></strong><span><span>The trade pillar of an IPEF agreement must respect governments’ ability to implement fair and sustainable food and farm systems that support sustainable livelihoods for farmers and food workers and healthy, affordable foods for consumers. </span></span><span>Trading partners must be free to increase public spending to support agroecological production, and to implement public policies that establish facially nondiscriminatory food safety, nutrition and labeling standards that meet the objective of the highest levels of consumer protection and environmental and ethical considerations. </span><span>The trade provisions of the IPEF should not be used to undermine reliance on the precautionary principle or other efforts to raise standards in other countries. </span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><strong><span>Decisions on the use or import of agricultural biotechnology should not be constrained by commitments in the trade pillar of the IPEF<em>.</em> </span></strong><span>The U.S. must not seek to replicate provisions in USMCA that streamline the approval of genetically modified crops and those produced using gene editing and other new technologies with unknown impacts on local ecosystems and crop varieties. USMCA also removes restrictions on unspecified low-level presence of agricultural biotechnology products that have not been approved in the importing country. Trading partners joining the IPEF must not be obliged to accept similar measures. Such provisions could undermine efforts to promote local food security and advance rural livelihoods.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><strong><span><span>The intellectual property provisions of an agreement must not limit farmers’ access to seeds or hide information on agricultural pesticides</span></span></strong><span><span>.</span></span><span> The trade pillar of the IPEF must not replicate the approach in USMCA and other recent trade deals where intellectual property provisions protect corporate-led technologies over more sustainable, open-source innovations of seeds and plants. Trade-related patent rules and extended claims of “Confidential Business Information” must not be used to keep safety and public health data on pesticides secret. These provisions promote corporate-controlled agriculture while undermining sustainable and organic practices, and would affect the health and safety of farmworkers, backyard gardeners and consumers of produce, while also limiting effective regulation of toxins in the environment.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><strong><span><span><span>The IPEF should prioritize action to address climate change and should ensure that climate measures are not subject to trade disputes.<em> </em></span></span></span></strong><span><span><span>Programs to promote renewable energy and reduce emissions from agriculture in ways that advance climate goals and support rural livelihoods should be encouraged and supported by the IPEF. These programs have previously been subject to trade complaints at the WTO as unfairly benefiting local communities over foreign investors. In addition, ISDS cases have been brought against many countries seeking to limit harmful mining and energy projects. We reiterate that ISDS should not be included in this agreement.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span>State-to-state dispute resolution mechanisms in trade agreements have also been used to challenge democratically determined measures to reduce emissions and promote a transition to sustainable energy, agricultural and industrial production. While comprehensive solutions to this problem will need to be determined at the WTO, the U.S. and its negotiating partners in the IPEF should use this opportunity to discuss ways to utilize existing authority under that accord to protect local and national governments’ ability to advance legitimate programs to respond to the climate emergency. For example, Article XX, section b of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade allows for exceptions for measure related to the protection of human lives and health, and section g allows for exceptions related to the conservation of natural resources. We urge you to explore ideas for a climate waiver or other mechanisms to ensure that trade commitments do not undermine climate action. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><strong><span><span>Conclusion</span></span></strong><span><span>. This is no time to repeat the mistakes of the past. Previous trade agreements have undermined family farmers and increased corporate concentration in agriculture in the U.S. and its trading partners. Trade agreements and trade policy must change course to support democratic decision making, sustainable production and improved livelihoods for all the nations involved. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><strong><a href="https://www.iatp.org/sites/default/files/2022-04/IATP%20NFFC%20on%20IPEF.pdf">Download a PDF of the letter.</a> </strong></p></div> <div class="field field--name-field-primary-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field--label">Primary category</div> <div class="field--item"><a href="/trade2" hreflang="en">Trade</a></div> </div> </div> Tue, 12 Apr 2022 19:23:10 +0000 cecelia heffron 44762 at https://www.iatp.org WEBINAR: Carbon Farming — Why carbon markets won't work for farmers and the climate https://www.iatp.org/blog/202203/webinar-carbon-farming-why-carbon-markets-wont-work-farmers-and-climate <span> WEBINAR: Carbon Farming — Why carbon markets won&#039;t work for farmers and the climate</span> <div class="field field--name-field-media field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--items"> <div class="field--item"><div> <div class="field field--name-field-media-video-embed-field field--type-string field--label-hidden field--item"><iframe src="/media/oembed?url=https%3A//youtu.be/dfeu1Hc9Rnc&amp;max_width=854&amp;max_height=480&amp;hash=-iELWnF_TBEkHMKCl2TE-z1tpk0_ydZfe17IbBvUrGM" frameborder="0" allowtransparency width="854" height="480" class="media-oembed-content" title="Carbon Farming — Why carbon markets won&#039;t work for farmers and the climate"></iframe> </div> </div> </div> </div> <span><span lang="" about="/about/staff/account/colleen-borgendale" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Colleen Borgendale</span></span> <span>Wed, 03/23/2022 - 22:00</span> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><h3 data-placeholder="Translation" dir="ltr">Translations/Traduction/Übersetzung</h3> <p data-placeholder="Translation" dir="ltr" id="tw-target-text"><em>Regardez un enregistrement du webinaire en français <a href="https://youtu.be/n7wgsvWsyHg">ici</a>. </em></p> <p data-placeholder="Translation" dir="ltr" id="tw-target-text"><em>Sehen Sie sich hier eine Aufzeichnung des Webinars <a href="https://youtu.be/fWxmIESsx8k">auf Deutsch an</a>.</em></p></div> Thu, 24 Mar 2022 03:00:34 +0000 Colleen Borgendale 44764 at https://www.iatp.org