On 21 September, the EU-Canadian free trade agreement known as CETA (Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement) provisionally comes into force. Or rather, “most of the agreement” does. It’s provisional because should even one of the 28 EU member states refuse to ratify it—it will cease to exist. This means that large parts of CETA will be activated before ratification by the parliaments of EU member states. However, EU member states can still choose not to ratify it, in which case CETA will be rejected in its entirety. Before EU parliamentarians make their decision, they must confront a series of critical questions regarding CETA and its implications for the future of European food and agriculture.